Cell and Tissue Research

, Volume 327, Issue 1, pp 25–31 | Cite as

Expression of UNCL during development of periodontal tissue and response of periodontal ligament fibroblasts to mechanical stress in vivo and in vitro

  • Heung-Joong Kim
  • Yong Seok Choi
  • Moon-Jin Jeong
  • Byung-Ock Kim
  • Sung-Hoon Lim
  • Do Kyung Kim
  • Chong Kwan Kim
  • Joo-Cheol Park
Regular Article

Abstract

Mutations in two genes, uncoordinated (unc) and uncoordinated-like (uncl), lead to a failure of mechanotransduction in Drosophila. UNCL, the human homolog of unc and uncl, is preferentially expressed in periodontal ligament (PDL) fibroblasts compared with gingival fibroblasts. However, the precise role of UNCL in the PDL remains unclear. The aim of the present study has been to examine whether mechanical stimuli modulate the expression of UNCL in the human PDL in vivo and in vitro and to examine the roles of UNCL in the development, regeneration, and repair of the PDL. We have investigated the expression pattern of UNCL during the development of periodontal tissue and the response of PDL fibroblasts to mechanical stress in vivo and in vitro. The expression of UNCL mRNA and protein increases with PDL fibroblast differentiation from the confluent to multilayer stage but slightly decreases on mineralized nodule formation. UNCL has also been localized in ameloblasts and adjacent cells, differentiating cementoblasts, and osteoblasts of the developing tooth. Strong distinct UNCL expression has further been observed in the differentiating cementoblasts of the tooth periodontium at the site of tension after orthodontic tooth movement. Application of cyclic mechanical stress on PDL fibroblasts increases the expression of UNCL mRNA. These results indicate that UNCL plays important roles in the development, differentiation, and maintenance of periodontal tissues and also suggest a potential role of UNCL in the mechanotransduction of PDL fibroblasts.

Keywords

UNCL Periodontal ligament Fibroblast Mechanical stress Cementoblast Differentiation Human Rat (Sprague-Dawley) 

References

  1. Arceo N, Sauk JJ, Moehring J, Foster RA, Somerman MJ (1991) Human periodontal cells initiate mineral-like nodules in vitro. J Periodontol 62:499–503PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Basdra EK, Komposch G (1997) Osteoblast-like properties of human periodontal ligament cells: an in vitro analysis. Eur J Orthod 19:615–621PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bolcato-Bellemin AL, Elkaim R, Abehsera A, Fausser JL, Haikel Y, Tenenbaum H (2000) Expression of mRNAs encoding for α and β integrin subunits, MMPs, and TIMPs in stretched human periodontal ligament and gingival fibroblasts. J Dent Res 79:1712–1716PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Bosshardt DD (2005) Are cementoblasts a subpopulation of osteoblasts or a unique phenotype? J Dent Res 84:390–406PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Carnes DL, Maeder CL, Graves DT (1997) Cells with osteoblastic phenotypes can be explanted from human gingival and periodontal ligament. J Periodontol 68:701–707PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Chien HH, Lin WL, Cho MI (1999) Expression of TGF-β isoforms and their receptors during mineralized nodule formation by rat periodontal ligament cells in vitro. J Periodontal Res 34:301–309PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cho MI, Matsuda N, Lin WL, Moshier A, Ramakrishnan PR (1992) In vitro formation of mineralized nodules by periodontal ligament cells from the rat. Calcif Tissue Int 50:459–467PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Doi T, Ohno S, Tanimoto K, Honda K, Tanaka N, Ohno-Nakahara M, Yoneno K, Suzuki A, Nakatani Y, Ueki M, Tanne K (2003) Mechanical stimuli enhance the expression of RGD-CAP/βig-h3 in the periodontal ligament. Arch Oral Biol 48:573–579PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Fitzgerald J, Kennedy D, Viseshakul N, Cohen BN, Mattick J, Bateman JF, Forsayeth JR (2000) UNCL, the mammalian homologue of UNC-50, is an inner nuclear membrane RNA-binding protein. Brain Res 877:110–123PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Foster BL, Somerman MJ (2005) Regenerating the periodontoium: is there a magic formula? Orthod Craniofacial Res 8:285–291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Hayashi H, Konoo T, Yamaguchi K (2004) Intermittent 8-hour activation in orthodontic molar movement. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 125:302–309PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Howard PS, Kucich U, Taliwal R, Korostoff JM (1998) Mechanical forces alter extracellular matrix synthesis by human periodontal ligament fibroblasts. J Periodontal Res 33:500–508PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kawarizadeh A, Bourauel C, Götz W, Jäger A (2005) Early response of periodontal ligament cells to mechanical stimulus in vivo. J Dent Res 84:902–906PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Kernan M, Cowan D, Zuker C (1994) Genetic dissection of mechanosensory transduction: mechanoreception-defective mutations of Drosophila. Neuron 12:1195–1206PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Komatsu K, Shibata T, Shimada A, Viidik A, Chiba M (2004) Age-related and regional differences in the stress-strain and stress-relaxation behaviors of the rat incisor periodontal ligament. J Biomech 37:1097–1106PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Konoo T, Kim YJ, Gu GM, King GJ (2001) Orthodontic force in orthodontic tooth movement. J Dent Res 80:457–460PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Lekic P, McCulloch CAG (1996) Periodontal ligament cell population: the central role of fibroblasts in creating a unique tissue. Anat Rec 245:327–341PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Lekic P, Sodek J, McCulloch CAG (1996) Relationship of cellular proliferation to expression of osteopontin and bone sialoprotein in regenerating rat periodontium. Cell Tissue Res 285:491–500PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. MacNeil RL, Thomas HF (1993) Development of the murine periodontium. II. Role of the periodontal attachment. J Periodontol 64:285–291PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Matsuda N, Morita N, Matsuda K, Watanabe M (1998) Proliferation and differentiation of human osteoblastic cells associated with differential activation of MAP kinases in response to epidermal growth factor, hypoxia, and mechanical stress in vitro. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 249:350–354PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Myokai F, Oyama M, Nishimura F, Ohira T, Yamamoto T, Arai H, Takashiba S, Murayama Y (2003) Unique genes induced by mechanical stress in periodontal ligament cells. J Periodontal Res 38:255–261PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Ozaki S, Kankeo S, Podyma-Inoue KA, Yanagishita M, Soma K (2005) Modulation of extracellular matrix synthesis and alkaline phosphatase activity of periodontal ligament cells by mechanical stress. J Periodontal Res 40:110–117PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Park JC, Kim YB, Kim HJ, Jang HS, Kim HS, Kim BO, Han KY (2001) Isolation and characterization of cultured human periodontal ligament fibroblast-specific cDNAs. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 282:1145–1153PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Perrimon N, Smouse D, Miklos GL (1989) Developmental genetics of loci at the base of the X chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics 121:313–331PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Schild C, Trueb B (2004) Three members of the connective tissue growth factor family CCN are differentially regulated by mechanical stress. Biochim Biophys Acta 169:33–40Google Scholar
  26. Shimono M, Ishikawa T, Ishikawa H, Matsuzaki H, Hashimoto S, Muramatsu T, Shima K, Matsuzaka K, Inoue T (2003) Regulatory mechanisms of periodontal regeneration. Microsc Res Tech 60:491–502PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Spouge JD (1980) A new look at the rests of Malassez: a review of their embryological origin, anatomy, and possiblae role in periodontal health and disease. J Periodontol 51:437–444PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Takahashi I, Nishimura M, Onodera K, Bae JW, Mitani H, Okazaki M, Sasano Y, Mitani H (2003) Expression of MMP-8 and MMP-13 genes in the periodontal ligament during tooth movement in rats. J Dent Res 82:646–651PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Wanamaker CP, Christianson JC, Green WN (2003) Regulation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor assembly. Ann NY Acad Sci 998:66–80PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Wilde J, Yokozeki M, Terai K, Kudo A, Moriyama K (2003) The divergent expression of periostin mRNA in the periodontal ligament during experimental tooth movement. Cell Tissue Res 312:345–351PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Yamashiro T, Fukunaga T, Kobashi N, Kamioka H, Nakanishi T, Takigawa M, Takano-Yamamoto T (2001) Mechanical stimulation induces CTGF expression in rat osteocytes. J Dent Res 80:461–465PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Zeichner-David M, Oishi K, Su Z, Zakartchenko V, Chen LS, Arzate H, Bringas P Jr (2003) Role of Hertwig’s epithelial root sheath cells in tooth root development. Dev Dyn 228:651–663PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Ziros PG, Gil AP, Georgakopoulos T, Habeos I, Kletsas D, Basdra EK, Papavassiliou AG (2002) The bone-specific transcriptional regulator Cbfa1 is a target of mechanical signals in osteoblastic cells. J Biol Chem 277:23934–23941PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Heung-Joong Kim
    • 1
  • Yong Seok Choi
    • 3
  • Moon-Jin Jeong
    • 3
  • Byung-Ock Kim
    • 1
  • Sung-Hoon Lim
    • 1
  • Do Kyung Kim
    • 1
  • Chong Kwan Kim
    • 2
  • Joo-Cheol Park
    • 3
  1. 1.Oral Biology Research Institute, College of DentistryChosun UniversityGwang-JuSouth Korea
  2. 2.Research Institute of Periodontal RegenerationYonsei UniversitySeoulSouth Korea
  3. 3.Department of Oral Histology, College of DentistryChosun UniversityGwang-JuSouth Korea

Personalised recommendations