Molecular organization of the presynaptic active zone
- 1.6k Downloads
The exocytosis of neurotransmitter-filled synaptic vesicles is under tight temporal and spatial control in presynaptic nerve terminals. The fusion of synaptic vesicles is restricted to a specialized area of the presynaptic plasma membrane: the active zone. The protein network that constitutes the cytomatrix at the active zone (CAZ) is involved in the organization of docking and priming of synaptic vesicles and in mediating use-dependent changes in release during short-term and long-term synaptic plasticity. To date, five protein families whose members are highly enriched at active zones (Munc13s, RIMs, ELKS proteins, Piccolo and Bassoon, and the liprins-α), have been characterized. These multidomain proteins are instrumental for the diverse functions performed by the presynaptic active zone.
KeywordsActive zone Synapse Cytomatrix Multidomain proteins
We thank the members of our laboratories and T.C. Südhof for discussions and support.
- Altrock WD, tom Dieck S, Sokolov M, Meyer AC, Sigler A, Brakebusch C, Fassler R, Richter K, Boeckers TM, Potschka H, Brandt C, Loscher W, Grimberg D, Dresbach T, Hempelmann A, Hassan H, Balschun D, Frey JU, Brandstatter JH, Garner CC, Rosenmund C, Gundelfinger ED (2003) Functional inactivation of a fraction of excitatory synapses in mice deficient for the active zone protein bassoon. Neuron 37:787–800PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Angenstein F, Niessen HG, Goldschmidt J, Lison H, Altrock WD, Gundelfinger ED, Scheich H (2006) Manganese-enhanced MRI reveals structural and functional changes in the cortex of bassoon mutant mice. Cereb Cortex (in press) DOI: 10.1093/cercor/bhj121
- Becherer U, Rettig J (2006) Vesicle pools, docking, priming, and release. Cell Tissue Res ( DOI: 10.1007/s00441-006-0243-z)
- Couteaux R, Pecot-Dechavassine M (1970) Synaptic vesicles and pouches at the level of “active zones” of the neuromuscular junction. C R Acad Sci IV 271:2346–2349Google Scholar
- tom Dieck S, Sanmarti-Vila L, Langnaese K, Richter K, Kindler S, Soyke A, Wex H, Smalla KH, Kampf U, Franzer JT, Stumm M, Garner CC, Gundelfinger ED (1998) Bassoon, a novel zinc-finger CAG/glutamine-repeat protein selectively localized at the active zone of presynaptic nerve terminals. J Cell Biol 142:499–509Google Scholar
- tom Dieck S, Altrock WD, Kessels MM, Qualmann B, Regus H, Brauner D, Fejtova A, Bracko O, Gundelfinger ED, Brandstatter JH (2005) Molecular dissection of the photoreceptor ribbon synapse: physical interaction of Bassoon and RIBEYE is essential for the assembly of the ribbon complex. J Cell Biol 168:825–836Google Scholar
- Dresbach T, Torres V, Wittenmayer N, Altrock WD, Zamorano P, Zuschratter W, Nawrotzki R, Ziv NE, Garner CC, Gundelfinger ED (2006) Assembly of active zone precursor vesicles: obligatory trafficking of presynaptic cytomatrix proteins Bassoon and Piccolo via a trans-Golgi compartment. J Biol Chem 281:6038–6047PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Inoue E, Mochida S, Takagi H, Higa S, Deguchi-Tawarada M, Takao-Rikitsu E, Inoue M, Yao I, Takeuchi K, Kitajima I, Setou M, Ohtsuka T, Takai Y (2006) SAD: a presynaptic kinase associated with synaptic vesicles and the active zone cytomatrix that regulates neurotransmitter release. Neuron 50:261–275PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ohtsuka T, Takao-Rikitsu E, Inoue E, Inoue M, Takeuchi M, Matsubara K, Deguchi-Tawarada M, Satoh K, Morimoto K, Nakanishi H, Takai Y (2002) Cast: a novel protein of the cytomatrix at the active zone of synapses that forms a ternary complex with RIM1 and Munc13-1. J Cell Biol 158:577–590PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Vosseller K, Trinidad JC, Chalkley RJ, Specht CG, Thalhammer A, Lynn AJ, Snedecor JO, Guan S, Medzihradszky KF, Maltby DA, Schoepfer R, Burlingame AL (2006) O-linked N-acetylglucosamine proteomics of postsynaptic density preparations using lectin weak affinity chromatography and mass spectrometry. Mol Cell Proteomics 5:923–934PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wagh DA, Rasse TM, Asan E, Hofbauer A, Schwenkert I, Durrbeck H, Buchner S, Dabauvalle MC, Schmidt M, Qin G, Wichmann C, Kittel R, Sigrist SJ, Buchner E (2006) Bruchpilot, a protein with homology to ELKS/CAST, is required for structural integrity and function of synaptic active zones in Drosophila. Neuron 49:833–844PubMedGoogle Scholar