Expression and mechanical modulation of matrix metalloproteinase-1 and -2 genes in facial and cranial sutures
- 77 Downloads
Craniofacial sutures create a soft tissue interface between various calvarial and facial bones. Facial and cranial sutures show differences in their surrounding anatomical structures and local mechanical strain environments. Despite previous attempts to identify the expression of matrix metalloproteinase genes (MMPs) in cranial sutures, little is known regarding whether facial and cranial sutures differ in MMP expression. We have investigated the expression of MMP-1 and MMP-2 in the premaxillomaxillary suture (PMS; facial suture) and the frontoparietal suture (FPS; cranial suture) in 32-day-old rats with or without the application of cyclic loading. Expression of MMP-1 and MMP-2 was detected by the reverse transcription/polymerase chain reaction technique. At 32 days of postnatal development (n=6), both MMP-1 and MMP-2 were reproducibly expressed in the facial PMS, in comparison with negligible MMP-1 and MMP-2 expression in the cranial FPS. In six age- and sex-matched control rats, cyclic loading at 4 Hz and 1000 mN was applied to the maxilla for two 20-min episodes within a 12-h interval. In some (but not all) cases, cyclic loading induced marked expression of MMP-1 and MMP-2 in the PMS and FPS in comparison with corresponding non-loaded controls. These data confirm our previous finding that short doses of cyclic loading upregulate MMP-2 expression in craniofacial sutures and suggest the possibility that facial and cranial sutures differ in matrix degradation rates during postnatal development.
KeywordsMatrix metalloproteinase Bone Osteoblasts Mechanical strain Craniofacial sutures Gene expression Rat (Sprague Dawley, male)
The experimental work described in this manuscript is taken from the Master of Science thesis research by Rasha Al-Mubarak. We thank Drs. Carla Evans and Philip Patston for serving on the thesis committee and for providing valuable suggestions on the thesis project. We are indebted to Aurora Lopez for general technical assistance. We thank two anonymous reviewers whose insightful comments helped improve the quality of the manuscript.
- Delaisse J, Engsig M, Everts V, Ovejero M, Ferreras L, Lund L, Vu T, Werb Z, Winding B, Lochter A, Karsdal M, Troen T, Kirkergaard T, Lenhard T, Heegaard A, Neff L, Baron R, Foged T (2000) Proteinases in bone resorption: obvious and less obvious roles. Clin Chim Acta 291:223–234CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Green DD, Hembry RM, Atkinson SJ, Reynolds JJ, Meikle MC (1990) Immunolocalization of collagenase and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP) in mechanically deformed fibrous joints. Am J Orthod 97:281–288Google Scholar
- Gross J, Lapiere CM (1962) Collagenolytic activity in amphibian tissues: a tissue culture assay. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 54:1197–1204Google Scholar
- Mao JJ, H-D Nah (2004) Growth and development: hereditary and mechanical modulations. Am J Orthod 125:676–689Google Scholar
- Mehrara BJ, Mackool RJ, McCarthy JG, Gittes GK, Longaker MT (1998) Immunolocalization of basic fibroblast growth factor and fibroblast growth factor receptors 1 and 2 in rat cranial sutures. J Craniofac Surg 6:358–363Google Scholar
- Miyawaki S, Forbes DP (1987) The morphologic and biochemical effects of tensile force application to the interparietal suture of the Sprague–Dawley rat. Am J Orthod 92:123–133Google Scholar
- Mooney MP, Burrows AM, Smith TD, Losken HW, Opperman LA, Dechant J, Kreithen AM, Kapueu R, Cooper GM, Ogle RC, Siegel MI (2001) Correction of coronal suture synostosis using suture and dura mater allograft rabbits with familial craniosynostosis. Cleft Palate Craniofac J 38:206–225CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Takahara M, Naruse T, Takagi M, Orui H, Ogino T (2004) Matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase activity, and DNA fragmentation in vascular and cellular invasion into cartilage preceding primary endochondral ossification in long bones. J Orthop Res 22:1050–1057CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Turner CH, Forwood MR, Rho JY, Yoshikawa T (1994) Mechanical loading thresholds for lamellar and woven bone formation. J Bone Mer Res 9:87–97Google Scholar
- Warren SM, Longaker MT (2001) The pathogenesis of craniosynostosis in the fetus Yonsei. Med J 42:646–659Google Scholar
- Wilkie AOM, Morriss-Kay GM (2001) Genetics of craniofacial development and malformation. Nature 2:458–468Google Scholar