Cell and Tissue Research

, Volume 325, Issue 2, pp 333–343 | Cite as

Rhopalia are integrated parts of the central nervous system in box jellyfish

Regular Article


In cubomedusae, the central nervous system (CNS) is found both in the bell (the ring nerve) and in the four eye-bearing sensory structures (the rhopalia). The ring nerve and the rhopalia are connected via the rhopalial stalks and examination of the structure of the rhopalial stalks therefore becomes important when trying to comprehend visual processing. In the present study, the rhopalial stalk of the cubomedusae Tripedalia cystophora has been examined by light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and electrophysiology. A major part of the ring nerve is shown to continue into the stalk and to contact the rhopalial neuropil directly. Ultrastructural analysis of synapse distribution in the rhopalial stalk has failed to show any clustering, which indicates that integration of the visual input is probably spread throughout the CNS. Together, the results indicate that cubomedusae have one coherent CNS including the rhopalia. Additionally, a novel gastrodermal nerve has been found in the stalk; this nerve is not involved in visual processing but is likely to be mechanosensory and part of a proprioceptory system.


Rhopalia Eyes CNS Synapse Tripedalia cystophora, jellyfish (Cnidaria: Cubozoa) 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. Garm
    • 1
  • P. Ekström
    • 1
  • M. Boudes
    • 2
  • D.-E. Nilsson
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Cell and Organism BiologyLund UniversityLundSweden
  2. 2.Department of BiologyUniversity of Montpellier IIMontpellierFrance

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