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Human Genetics

, Volume 136, Issue 5, pp 485–497 | Cite as

Revisiting the male genetic landscape of China: a multi-center study of almost 38,000 Y-STR haplotypes

  • Michael Nothnagel
  • Guangyao Fan
  • Fei Guo
  • Yongfeng He
  • Yiping Hou
  • Shengping Hu
  • Jiang Huang
  • Xianhua Jiang
  • Wook Kim
  • Kicheol Kim
  • Chengtao Li
  • Hui Li
  • Liming Li
  • Shilin Li
  • Zhao Li
  • Weibo Liang
  • Chao Liu
  • Di Lu
  • Haibo Luo
  • Shengjie Nie
  • Meisen Shi
  • Hongyu Sun
  • Jianpin Tang
  • Lei Wang
  • Chuan-Chao Wang
  • Dan Wang
  • Shao-Qing Wen
  • Hongyan Wu
  • Weiwei Wu
  • Jiaxin Xing
  • Jiangwei Yan
  • Shi Yan
  • Hongbing Yao
  • Yi Ye
  • Libing Yun
  • Zhaoshu Zeng
  • Lagabaiyila Zha
  • Suhua Zhang
  • Xiufen Zheng
  • Sascha Willuweit
  • Lutz Roewer
Original Investigation
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Y-Chromosome

Abstract

China has repeatedly been the subject of genetic studies to elucidate its prehistoric and historic demography. While some studies reported a genetic distinction between Northern and Southern Han Chinese, others showed a more clinal picture of small differences within China. Here, we investigated the distribution of Y chromosome variation along administrative as well as ethnic divisions in the mainland territory of the People’s Republic of China, including 28 administrative regions and 19 recognized Chinese nationalities, to assess the impact of recent demographic processes. To this end, we analyzed 37,994 Y chromosomal 17-marker haplotype profiles from the YHRD database with respect to forensic diversity measures and genetic distance between groups defined by administrative boundaries and ethnic origin. We observed high diversity throughout all Chinese provinces and ethnicities. Some ethnicities, including most prominently Kazakhs and Tibetans, showed significant genetic differentiation from the Han and other groups. However, differences between provinces were, except for those located on the Tibetan plateau, less pronounced. This discrepancy is explicable by the sizeable presence of Han speakers, who showed high genetic homogeneity all across China, in nearly all studied provinces. Furthermore, we observed a continuous genetic North–South gradient in the Han, confirming previous reports of a clinal distribution of Y chromosome variation and being in notable concordance with the previously observed spatial distribution of autosomal variation. Our findings shed light on the demographic changes in China accrued by a fast-growing and increasingly mobile population.

Keywords

Match Probability Discrimination Capacity Ethnic Division Chromosomal Haplotype Random Match Probability 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.

Funding

Hongbing Yao was supported by the Natural Science Foundation of Gansu Province (1308RJZA190), Scientific Research Project for Colleges of Gansu Province (2014A-085), Evidence Science, Technology and Application for Key Laboratory Foundation of Gansu Province (ZDSYS-Y20) and Gansu Institute of Political Science and Law Foundation Project (GZF2011XQNLW45). Lagabaiyila Zha’s work was supported by the Natural Science Foundation for Youth (81302621). Xiufen Zheng received a grant by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31260267). Hongyu Sun was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (81273347, 81671873), and Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (16ykzd08). Hui Li received funding from MOE Scientific Research Project (113022A), NSFC31671297, MOST2016YFC0900300, and Shanghai Shuguang Project (14SG05). Lei Wang and Zhaoshu Zeng were supported by The Key Scientific Research Project for Higher Institutions of Henan Provincial Education Department (15A180021). Weibo Liang’s work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (81471827, 81671871).

Supplementary material

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael Nothnagel
    • 1
  • Guangyao Fan
    • 2
  • Fei Guo
    • 3
  • Yongfeng He
    • 4
  • Yiping Hou
    • 5
  • Shengping Hu
    • 6
  • Jiang Huang
    • 7
  • Xianhua Jiang
    • 8
  • Wook Kim
    • 9
  • Kicheol Kim
    • 10
  • Chengtao Li
    • 11
  • Hui Li
    • 12
  • Liming Li
    • 12
  • Shilin Li
    • 12
  • Zhao Li
    • 13
  • Weibo Liang
    • 5
  • Chao Liu
    • 14
  • Di Lu
    • 15
  • Haibo Luo
    • 5
  • Shengjie Nie
    • 15
  • Meisen Shi
    • 16
  • Hongyu Sun
    • 17
  • Jianpin Tang
    • 18
  • Lei Wang
    • 19
  • Chuan-Chao Wang
    • 20
  • Dan Wang
    • 21
  • Shao-Qing Wen
    • 12
  • Hongyan Wu
    • 22
  • Weiwei Wu
    • 23
  • Jiaxin Xing
    • 24
  • Jiangwei Yan
    • 25
  • Shi Yan
    • 12
  • Hongbing Yao
    • 26
  • Yi Ye
    • 5
  • Libing Yun
    • 5
  • Zhaoshu Zeng
    • 27
  • Lagabaiyila Zha
    • 28
  • Suhua Zhang
    • 11
  • Xiufen Zheng
    • 29
  • Sascha Willuweit
    • 30
  • Lutz Roewer
    • 30
  1. 1.Department of Statistical Genetics and Bioinformatics, Cologne Center for Genomics (CCG)University of CologneCologneGermany
  2. 2.Department of Public Security Technology, The Center for Forensic Science ResearchRailway Police CollegeZhengzhouPeople’s Republic of China
  3. 3.Department of Forensic MedicineNational Police University of ChinaShenyangPeople’s Republic of China
  4. 4.Department of Criminal InvestigationShaanxi Provincial Public Security BureauXi’anPeople’s Republic of China
  5. 5.Institute of Forensic Medicine, West China School of Basic Science and Forensic MedicineSichuan UniversityChengduPeople’s Republic of China
  6. 6.Molecular Biology and Forensic Genetics LaboratoryShantou University Medical CollegeShantouPeople’s Republic of China
  7. 7.Department of Forensic MedicineGuizhou Medical UniversityGuiyangPeople’s Republic of China
  8. 8.Liaoning Criminal and Science Technology Research InstituteShenyangPeople’s Republic of China
  9. 9.Department of Biological SciencesDankook UniversityCheonanRepublic of Korea
  10. 10.Department of NeurologyUniversity of California, San FranciscoSan FranciscoUSA
  11. 11.Shanghai Key Laboratory of Forensic MedicineShanghai Forensic Service Platform, Institute of Forensic Sciences, Ministry of Justice, P.R. ChinaShanghaiPeople’s Republic of China
  12. 12.MOE Key Laboratory of Contemporary Anthropology, School of Life SciencesFudan UniversityShanghaiPeople’s Republic of China
  13. 13.Department of Criminal InvestigationHebei Provincial Public Security BureauShijiazhuang CityPeople’s Republic of China
  14. 14.Guangzhou Forensic Science InstituteGuangzhouPeople’s Republic of China
  15. 15.School of Forensic MedicineKunming Medical UniversityKunmingPeople’s Republic of China
  16. 16.Center of Cooperative Innovation for Judicial Civilization, Institute of Evidence Law and Forensic ScienceChina University of Political Science and Law, Ministry of EducationBeijingPeople’s Republic of China
  17. 17.Department of Forensic Medicine, Zhongshan School of MedicineSun Yat-sen UniversityGuangzhouPeople’s Republic of China
  18. 18.Department of Forensic MedicineGuangdong Medical UniversityDongguanPeople’s Republic of China
  19. 19.Department of Forensic SciencesPolice Station of ZhengzhouZhengzhouPeople’s Republic of China
  20. 20.Department of ArchaeogeneticsMax Planck Institute for the Science of Human HistoryJenaGermany
  21. 21.Institute of Forensic Medicine and Laboratory MedicineJining Medical UniversityJiningPeople’s Republic of China
  22. 22.Xinxiang Medical University School of Basic MedicalXinxiangPeople’s Republic of China
  23. 23.Institute of Forensic Science, Zhejiang Provincial Public Security BureauHangzhouPeople’s Republic of China
  24. 24.School of Forensic MedicineChina Medical UniversityShenyangPeople’s Republic of China
  25. 25.Beijing Institute of GenomicsChinese Academy of SciencesBeijingPeople’s Republic of China
  26. 26.Key Laboratory of Evidence Science of Gansu ProvinceGansu Institute of Political Science and LawLanzhouPeople’s Republic of China
  27. 27.School of Basic Medical SciencesZhengzhou UniversityZhengzhouPeople’s Republic of China
  28. 28.Forensic Science Department, School of Basic Medical SciencesCentral South UniversityChangshaPeople’s Republic of China
  29. 29.Department of Pathology, Department of Surgery, Department of OncologyUniversity of Western Ontario, Lawson Health Research InstituteLondonCanada
  30. 30.Department of Forensic Genetics, Institute of Legal Medicine and Forensic SciencesCharité-Universitätsmedizin BerlinBerlinGermany

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