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Human Genetics

, Volume 132, Issue 11, pp 1253–1264 | Cite as

Characterization of a novel missense mutation in the prodomain of GDF5, which underlies brachydactyly type C and mild Grebe type chondrodysplasia in a large Pakistani family

  • Muhammad Farooq
  • Hiroyuki Nakai
  • Atsushi Fujimoto
  • Hiroki Fujikawa
  • Klaus Wilbrandt Kjaer
  • Shahid Mahmood Baig
  • Yutaka ShimomuraEmail author
Original Investigation

Abstract

All TGF-beta family members have a prodomain that is important for secretion. Lack of secretion of a TGF-beta family member GDF5 is known to underlie some skeletal abnormalities, such as brachydactyly type C that is characterized by a huge and unexplained phenotypic variability. To search for potential phenotypic modifiers regulating secretion of GDF5, we compared cells overexpressing wild type (Wt) GDF5 and GDF5 with a novel mutation in the prodomain identified in a large Pakistani family with Brachydactyly type C and mild Grebe type chondrodyslplasia (c527T>C; p.Leu176Pro). Initial in vitro expression studies revealed that the p.Leu176Pro mutant (Mut) GDF5 was not secreted outside the cells. We subsequently showed that GDF5 was capable of forming a complex with latent transforming growth factor binding proteins, LTBP1 and LTBP2. Furthermore, secretion of LTBP1 and LTBP2 was severely impaired in cells expressing the Mut-GDF5 compared to Wt-GDF5. Finally, we demonstrated that secretion of Wt-GDF5 was inhibited by the Mut-GDF5, but only when LTBP (LTBP1 or LTBP2) was co-expressed. Based on these findings, we suggest a novel model, where the dosage of secretory co-factors or stabilizing proteins like LTBP1 and LTBP2 in the microenvironment may affect the extent of GDF5 secretion and thereby function as modifiers in phenotypes caused by GDF5 mutations.

Keywords

HEK293T Cell Brachydactyly Complete Mini Protease Inhibitor Cocktail GDF5 Gene Brachydactyly Type 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgments

We acknowledge the family members involved in this study. We thank Drs. Satoshi Ishii (Tokyo University, Japan) and Junichi Miyazaki (Osaka University, Japan) for supplying pCXN2.1 vector. This study was supported in part by the Special Coordination Funds for Promoting Science and Technology, the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan (to Y.S.).

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

439_2013_1330_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (1.1 mb)
Supplementary material 1 (PDF 1079 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Muhammad Farooq
    • 1
    • 2
  • Hiroyuki Nakai
    • 3
  • Atsushi Fujimoto
    • 1
  • Hiroki Fujikawa
    • 1
  • Klaus Wilbrandt Kjaer
    • 4
  • Shahid Mahmood Baig
    • 2
  • Yutaka Shimomura
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Laboratory of Genetic Skin DiseasesNiigata University Graduate School of Medical and Dental SciencesNiigataJapan
  2. 2.Human Molecular Genetics Laboratory, Health Biotechnology DivisionNational Institute for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering (NIBGE)FaisalabadPakistan
  3. 3.Graduate School of Science and TechnologyNiigata UniversityNiigataJapan
  4. 4.Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Health SciencesUniversity of CopenhagenCopenhagenDenmark

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