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Human Genetics

, Volume 131, Issue 4, pp 535–563 | Cite as

Modeling human neurodegenerative diseases in transgenic systems

  • Miguel A. Gama Sosa
  • Rita De Gasperi
  • Gregory A. Elder
Review Paper

Abstract

Transgenic systems are widely used to study the cellular and molecular basis of human neurodegenerative diseases. A wide variety of model organisms have been utilized, including bacteria (Escherichia coli), plants (Arabidopsis thaliana), nematodes (Caenorhabditis elegans), arthropods (Drosophila melanogaster), fish (zebrafish, Danio rerio), rodents (mouse, Mus musculus and rat, Rattus norvegicus) as well as non-human primates (rhesus monkey, Macaca mulatta). These transgenic systems have enormous value for understanding the pathophysiological basis of these disorders and have, in some cases, been instrumental in the development of therapeutic approaches to treat these conditions. In this review, we discuss the most commonly used model organisms and the methodologies available for the preparation of transgenic organisms. Moreover, we provide selected examples of the use of these technologies for the preparation of transgenic animal models of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD), frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Huntington’s disease (HD) and Parkinson’s disease (PD) and discuss the application of these technologies to AD as an example of how transgenic modeling has affected the study of human neurodegenerative diseases.

Keywords

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Amyloid Precursor Protein Sleep Beauty Amyloid Precursor Protein Gene Transgenic System 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgments

Supported by the Alzheimer’s Association (IIRG-07-57318), Department of Veterans Affairs (1 I01 BX000342-01) and the National Institute on Aging (P50 AG005138).

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag (outside the USA) 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Miguel A. Gama Sosa
    • 1
    • 3
    • 5
  • Rita De Gasperi
    • 1
    • 3
    • 5
  • Gregory A. Elder
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
    • 5
  1. 1.Research and Development Service, 3F-20James J. Peters Department of Veterans Affairs Medical CenterBronxUSA
  2. 2.Neurology ServiceJames J. Peters Department of Veterans Affairs Medical CenterBronxUSA
  3. 3.Department of PsychiatryMount Sinai School of Medicine of New York UniversityNew YorkUSA
  4. 4.Department of NeurologyMount Sinai School of Medicine of New York UniversityNew YorkUSA
  5. 5.The Friedman Brain InstituteMount Sinai School of Medicine of New York UniversityNew YorkUSA

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