Human Genetics

, Volume 126, Issue 1, pp 101–113 | Cite as

Genetics of human aggressive behaviour

Review Article

Abstract

A consideration of the evolutionary, physiological and anthropological aspects of aggression suggests that individual differences in such behaviour will have important genetic as well as environmental underpinning. Surveys of the likely pathways controlling the physiological and neuronal processes involved highlight, as obvious targets to investigate, genes implicated in sexual differentiation, anxiety, stress response and the serotonin neurotransmitter pathway. To date, however, association studies on single candidates have provided little evidence for any such loci with a major effect size. This may be because genes do not operate independently, but function against a background in which other genetic and environmental factors are crucial. Indeed, a series of recent studies, particularly concentrating on the serotonin and norepinephrine metabolising enzyme, monoamine oxidase A, has emphasised the necessity of examining gene by environmental interactions if the contributions of individual loci are to be understood. These findings will have major significance for the interpretation and analysis of data from detailed whole genome association studies. Functional imaging studies of genetic variants affecting serotonin pathways have also provided valuable insights into potential links between genes, brain and aggressive behaviour.

References

  1. Alia-Klein N, Goldstein RZ, Kriplani A, Logan J, Tomasi D, Williams B, Telang F, Shumay E, Biegon A, Craig IW, Henn F, Wang GJ, Volkow ND, Fowler JS (2008a) Brain monoamine oxidase A activity predicts trait aggression. J Neurosci 28:5099–5104PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Alia-Klein N, Kriplani A, Pradhan K, Ma JY, Logan J, Williams B, Craig IW, Telang F, Tomasi D, Goldstein RZ, Wang GJ, Volkow ND, Fowler JS (2008b) The MAO-A genotype does not modulate resting brain metabolism in adults. Psychiatry Res 164:73–76PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Alia-Klein N, Goldstein RZ, Tomasi D, Woicik PA, Moeller SJ, Williams B, Craig IW, Telang F, Biegon A, Wang GJ, Fowler JS, Volkow ND (2009) Neural mechanisms of anger regulation as a function of genetic risk for violence. Emotion 9:385–396PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Archer J (1991) The influence of testosterone on human aggression. Br J Psychol 82(Pt 1):1–28PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Bachner-Melman R, Dina C, Zohar AH, Constantini N, Lerer E, Hoch S, Sella S, Nemanov L, Gritsenko I, Lichtenberg P, Granot R, Ebstein RP (2005) AVPR1a and SLC6A4 gene polymorphisms are associated with creative dance performance. PLoS Genet 1:e42PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Balciuniene J, Emilsson L, Oreland L, Pettersson U, Jazin EE (2002) Investigation of the functional effect of monoamine oxidase polymorphisms in human brain. Hum Genet 110:1–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Benton D (1988) Hypoglycemia and aggression: a review. Int J Neurosci 41:163–168PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Berman ME, McCloskey MS, Fanning JR, Schumacher JA, Coccaro EF (2009) Serotonin augmentation reduces response to attack in aggressive individuals. Psychol Sci (in press)Google Scholar
  9. Birger M, Swartz M, Cohen D, Alesh Y, Grishpan C, Kotelr M (2003) Aggression: the testosterone-serotonin link. Isr Med Assoc J 5:653–658PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Blair RJR (2004) The roles of orbital frontal cortex in the modulation of antisocial behavior. Brain Cogn 55:198–208PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Blair RJR, Peschardt KS, Budhani S, Mitchell DGV, Pine DS (2006) The development of psychopathy. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 47:262–275PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Book AS, Starzyk KB, Quinsey VL (2001) The relationship between testosterone and aggression: a meta-analysis. Aggress Violent Behav 6:579–599Google Scholar
  13. Bray PJ, Cotton RG (2003) Variations of the human glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1): pathological and in vitro mutations and polymorphisms. Hum Mutat 21:557–568PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Brodkin ES, Goforth SA, Keene AH, Fossella JA, Silver LM (2002) Identification of quantitative trait loci that affect aggressive behavior in mice. J Neurosci 22:1165–1170PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Brown GL, Ebert MH, Goyer PF, Jimerson DC, Klein WJ, Bunney WE, Goodwin FK (1982) Aggression, suicide, and serotonin: relationships to CSF amine metabolites. Am J Psychiatry 139:741–746PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Brunner HG, Nelen M, Breakefield XO, Ropers HH, van Oost BA (1993) Abnormal behavior associated with a point mutation in the structural gene for monoamine oxidase A. Science 262:578–580PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Buckholtz JW, Meyer-Lindenberg A (2008) MAOA and the neurogenetic architecture of human aggression. Trends Neurosci 31:120–129PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Caramaschi D, de Boer SF, Koolhaas JM (2007) Differential role of the 5-HT1A receptor in aggressive and non-aggressive mice: an across-strain comparison. Physiol Behav 90:590–601PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Cases O, Seif I, Grimsby J, Gaspar P, Chen K, Pournin S, Muller U, Aguet M, Babinet C, Shih JC (1995) Aggressive behavior and altered amounts of brain serotonin and norepinephrine in mice lacking MAOA. Science 268:1763–1766PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Caspi A, McClay J, Moffitt TE, Mill J, Martin J, Craig IW, Taylor A, Poulton R (2002) Role of genotype in the cycle of violence in maltreated children. Science 297:851–854PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Cirulli ET, Goldstein DB (2007) In vitro assays fail to predict in vivo effects of regulatory polymorphisms. Hum Mol Genet 16:1931–1939PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Coccaro EF, Kavoussi RJ, Trestman RL, Gabriel SM, Cooper TB, Siever LJ (1997) Serotonin function in human subjects: intercorrelations among central 5-HT indices and aggressiveness. Psychiatry Res 73:1–14PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Coccaro EF, Kavoussi RJ, Hauger RL, Cooper TB, Ferris CF (1998) Cerebrospinal fluid vasopressin levels: correlates with aggression and serotonin function in personality-disordered subjects. Arch Gen Psychiatry 55:708–714PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Craig IW (2005) The role of monoamine oxidase A, MAOA, in the aetiology of antisocial behaviour: the importance of gene-environment interactions. Novartis Found Symp 268:227–237PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Craig IW (2007a) The importance of stress and genetic variation in human aggression. Bioessays 29:227–236PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Craig IW (2007b) Genetic polymorphisms in stress response. In: Fink G (ed) Encyclopedia of Stress, 2nd edn. Elsevier, Oxford, pp 135–140Google Scholar
  27. Crick NR, Dodge KA (1996) Social information-processing mechanisms in reactive and proactive aggression. Child Dev 67:993–1002PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. D’Souza UM, Craig IW (2008) Functional genetic polymorphisms in serotonin and dopamine gene systems and their significance in behavioural disorders. Prog Brain Res 172:73–98PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Davidge KM, Atkinson L, Douglas L, Lee V, Shapiro S, Kennedy JL, Beitchman JH (2004) Association of the serotonin transporter and 5HT1Dbeta receptor genes with extreme, persistent and pervasive aggressive behaviour in children. Psychiatr Genet 14:143–146PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Davidson RJ, Putnam KM, Larson CL (2000) Dysfunction in the neural circuitry of emotion regulation—a possible prelude to violence. Science 289:591–594PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Deckert J, Catalano M, Syagailo YV, Bosi M, Okladnova O, Di BD, Nothen MM, Maffei P, Franke P, Fritze J, Maier W, Propping P, Beckmann H, Bellodi L, Lesch KP (1999) Excess of high activity monoamine oxidase A gene promoter alleles in female patients with panic disorder. Hum Mol Genet 8:621–624PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Denney RM, Koch H, Craig IW (1999) Association between monoamine oxidase A activity in human male skin fibroblasts and genotype of the MAOA promoter-associated variable number tandem repeat. Hum Genet 105:542–551PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Eisenberger NI, Way BM, Taylor SE, Welch WT, Lieberman MD (2007) Understanding genetic risk for aggression: clues from the brain’s response to social exclusion. Biol Psychiatry 61:1100–1108PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Ferris CF, Melloni RH, Koppel G, Perry KW, Fuller RW, Delville Y (1997) Vasopressin/serotonin interactions in the anterior hypothalamus control aggressive behavior in golden hamsters. J Neurosci 17:4331–4340PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Foley DL, Eaves LJ, Wormley B, Silberg JL, Maes HH, Kuhn J, Riley B (2004) Childhood adversity, monoamine oxidase a genotype, and risk for conduct disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry 61:738–744PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Fowler JS, Alia-Klein N, Kriplani A, Logan J, Williams B, Zhu W, Craig IW, Telang F, Goldstein R, Volkow ND, Vaska P, Wang GJ (2007) Evidence that brain MAO A activity does not correspond to MAO A genotype in healthy male subjects. Biol Psychiatry 62:355–358PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Gabel S, Stadler J, Bjorn J, Shindledecker R (1995) Homovanillic acid and dopamine-beta-hydroxylase in male youth: relationships with paternal substance abuse and antisocial behavior. Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse 21:363–378PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Galvin M, Shekhar A, Simon J, Stilwell B, Ten ER, Laite G, Karwisch G, Blix S (1991) Low dopamine-beta-hydroxylase: a biological sequela of abuse and neglect? Psychiatry Res 39:1–11PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Gatewood JD, Wills A, Shetty S, Xu J, Arnold AP, Burgoyne PS, Rissman EF (2006) Sex chromosome complement and gonadal sex influence aggressive and parental behaviors in mice. J Neurosci 26:2335–2342PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Gogos JA, Morgan M, Luine V, Santha M, Ogawa S, Pfaff D, Karayiorgou M (1998) Catechol-O-methyltransferase-deficient mice exhibit sexually dimorphic changes in catecholamine levels and behavior. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 95:9991–9996PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Gutknecht L, Kriegebaum C, Waider J, Schmitt A, Lesch K-P (2009) Spatio-temporal expression of tryptophan hydroxylase isoforms in murine and human brain: convergent data from Tph2 knockout mice. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 19:266–282PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Hasegawa Y, Higuchi S, Matsushita S, Miyaoka H (2002) Association of a polymorphism of the serotonin 1B receptor gene and alcohol dependence with inactive aldehyde dehydrogenase-2. J Neural Transm 109:513–521PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Hennig J, Reuter M, Netter P, Burk C, Landt O (2005) Two types of aggression are differentially related to serotonergic activity and the A779C TPH polymorphism. Behav Neurosci 119:16–25PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Hess C, Reif A, Strobel A, Boreatti-Hummer A, Heine M, Lesch KP, Jacob CP (2009) A functional dopamine-beta-hydroxylase gene promoter polymorphism is associated with impulsive personality styles, but not with affective disorders. J Neural Transm 116:121–130PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Huang YY, Grailhe R, Arango V, Hen R, Mann JJ (1999) Relationship of psychopathology to the human serotonin1B genotype and receptor binding kinetics in postmortem brain tissue. Neuropsychopharmacology 21:238–246PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Huang YY, Cate SP, Battistuzzi C, Oquendo MA, Brent D, Mann JJ (2004) An association between a functional polymorphism in the monoamine oxidase a gene promoter, impulsive traits and early abuse experiences. Neuropsychopharmacology 29:1498–1505PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Jonsson EG, von Gertten C, Gustavsson JP, Yuan QP, Lindblad-Toh K, Forslund K, Rylander G, Mattila-Evenden M, Asberg M, Schalling M (2001) Androgen receptor trinucleotide repeat polymorphism and personality traits. Psychiatr Genet 11:19–23PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Kim SJ, Young LJ, Gonen D, Veenstra-VanderWeele J, Courchesne R, Courchesne E, Lord C, Leventhal BL, Cook EH, Insel TR (2002) Transmission disequilibrium testing of arginine vasopressin receptor 1A (AVPR1A) polymorphisms in autism. Mol Psychiatry 7:503–507PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Kim CH, Hahn MK, Joung Y, Anderson SL, Steele AH, Mazei-Robinson MS, Gizer I, Teicher MH, Cohen BM, Robertson D, Waldman ID, Blakely RD, Kim KS (2006) A polymorphism in the norepinephrine transporter gene alters promoter activity and is associated with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 103:19164–19169PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Kim-Cohen J, Caspi A, Taylor A, Williams B, Newcombe R, Craig IW, Moffitt TE (2006) MAOA, maltreatment, and gene-environment interaction predicting children’s mental health: new evidence and a meta-analysis. Mol Psychiatry 11:903–913PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Kulikov AV, Osipova DV, Naumenko VS, Popova NK (2005) Association between Tph2 gene polymorphism, brain tryptophan hydroxylase activity and aggressiveness in mouse strains. Genes Brain Behav 4:482–485PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Kulikova MA, Maluchenko NV, Timofeeva MA, Shlepzova VA, Schegolkova JV, Sysoeva OV, Ivanitsky AM, Tonevitsky AG (2008) Effect of functional catechol-O-methyltransferase Val158Met polymorphism on physical aggression. Bull Exp Biol Med 145:62–64PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Lam LCW, Tang NLS, Ma SL, Zhang WM, Chiu HFK (2004) 5-HT(2A)T102C receptor polymorphism and neuropsychiatric symptoms in Alzheimer’s disease. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 19:523–526PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Lappalainen J, Long JC, Eggert M, Ozaki N, Robin RW, Brown GL, Naukkarinen H, Virkkunen M, Linnoila M, Goldman D (1998) Linkage of antisocial alcoholism to the serotonin 5-HT1B receptor gene in 2 populations. Arch Gen Psychiatry 55:989–994PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Lesch KP (2005) Serotonergic gene inactivation in mice: models for anxiety and aggression? Novartis Found Symp 268:111–140PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Linnoila VM, Virkkunen M (1992) Aggression, suicidality, and serotonin. J Clin Psychiatry 53 Suppl:46–51PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Loney BR, Butler MA, Lima EN, Counts CA, Eckel LA (2006) The relation between salivary cortisol, callous-unemotional traits, and conduct problems in an adolescent non-referred sample. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 47:30–36PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Manuck SB, Flory JD, Ferrell RE, Dent KM, Mann JJ, Muldoon MF (1999) Aggression and anger-related traits associated with a polymorphism of the tryptophan hydroxylase gene. Biol Psychiatry 45:603–614PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Maynard Smith J, Harper DGC, Brookfield JFY (1988) The Evolution of Aggression: Can Selection Generate Variability? [and Discussion]. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 319:557–570PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Mazur (1983) Hormones, aggression, and dominance in humans. In: Svare BB (ed) Hormones and aggressive behavior. Plenum, New York, pp 563–576Google Scholar
  61. McGowan PO, Sasaki A, D’Alessio AC, Dymov S, Labonte B, Szyf M, Turecki G, Meaney MJ (2009) Epigenetic regulation of the glucocorticoid receptor in human brain associates with childhood abuse. Nat Neurosci 12:342–348PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Meyer-Lindenberg A, Buckholtz JW, Kolachana B, Hariri R, Pezawas L, Blasi G, Wabnitz A, Honea R, Verchinski B, Callicott JH, Egan M, Mattay V, Weinberger DR (2006) Neural mechanisms of genetic risk for impulsivity and violence in humans. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 103:6269–6274PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Miles DR, Carey G (1997) Genetic and environmental architecture of human aggression. J Pers Soc Psychol 72:207–217PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Moffitt TE, Caspi A, Rutter M, Silva PA (2001) Sex differences in antisocial behaviour: conduct disorder, delinquency and violence in the Dunedin Longitudinal Study. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  65. Navarro JF, Luque MJ, De Castro V, Martin-Lopez M (2008) Effects of LY379268, a selective agonist of mGlu2/3 receptors, on isolation-induced aggression in male mice. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 18:S252Google Scholar
  66. Nelson RJ, Demas GE, Huang PL, Fishman MC, Dawson VL, Dawson TM, Snyder SH (1995) Behavioral abnormalities in male-mice lacking neuronal nitric-oxide synthase. Nature 378:383–386PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. New AS, Gelernter J, Goodman M, Mitropoulou V, Koenigsberg H, Silverman J, Siever LJ (2001) Suicide, impulsive aggression, and HTR1B genotype. Biol Psychiatry 50:62–65PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Nielsen SD, Storgaard H, Moesgaard F, Gluud C (1994) Prevalence of alcohol-problems among adult somatic inpatients of a Copenhagen hospital. Alcohol Alcohol 29:583–590PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Nilsson KW, Sjoberg RL, Damberg M, Leppert J, Ohrvik J, Alm PO, Lindstrom L, Oreland L (2006) Role of monoamine oxidase A genotype and psychosocial factors in male adolescent criminal activity. Biol Psychiatry 59:121–127PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Nilsson KW, Sjoberg RL, Wargelius HL, Leppert J, Lindstrom L, Oreland L (2007) The monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) gene, family function and maltreatment as predictors of destructive behaviour during male adolescent alcohol consumption. Addiction 102:389–398PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Nishiguchi N, Shirakawa O, Ono H, Nishimura A, Nushida H, Ueno Y, Maeda K (2001) Brief research communication—no evidence of an association between 5HT1B receptor gene polymorphism and suicide victims in a Japanese population. Am J Med Genet 105:343–345PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Olivier B, van Oorschot (2005) 5-HT1B receptors and aggression: a review. Eur J Pharmacol 526:207–217Google Scholar
  73. Osipova DV, Kulikov AV, Popova NK (2009) C1473G polymorphism in mouse tph2 gene is linked to tryptophan hydroxylase-2 activity in the brain, intermale aggression, and depressive-like behavior in the forced swim test. J Neurosci Res 87:1168–1174PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Ou XM, Chen K, Shih JC (2006) Glucocorticoid and androgen activation of monoamine oxidase A is regulated differently by R1 and Sp1. J Biol Chem 281:21512–21525PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Passamonti L, Fera F, Magariello A, Cerasa A, Gioia MC, Muglia M, Nicoletti G, Gallo O, Provinciali L, Quattrone A (2006) Monoamine oxidase-A genetic variations influence brain activity associated with inhibitory control: new insight into the neural correlates of impulsivity. Biol Psychiatry 59:334–340PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Pinsonneault JK, Papp AC, Sadée W (2006) Allelic mRNA expression of X-linked monoamine oxidase a (MAOA) in human brain: dissection of epigenetic and genetic factors. Hum Mol Genet 15:2636–2649PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Placidi GP, Oquendo MA, Malone KM, Huang YY, Ellis SP, Mann JJ (2001) Aggressivity, suicide attempts, and depression: relationship to cerebrospinal fluid monoamine metabolite levels. Biol Psychiatry 50:783–791PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Popma A, Doreleijers TA, Jansen LMC, Van Goozen SHM, van Engeland H, Vermeiren R (2007) The diurnal cortisol cycle in delinquent male adolescents and normal controls. Neuropsychopharmacology 32:1622–1628PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Preuss UW, Koller G, Bondy B, Bahlmann M, Soyka M (2001) Impulsive traits and 5-HT2A receptor promoter polymorphism in alcohol dependents: possible association but no influence of personality disorders. Neuropsychobiology 43:186–191PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Prichard Z, Mackinnon A, Jorm AF, Easteal S (2008) No evidence for interaction between MAOA and childhood adversity for antisocial behavior. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet 147B:228–232PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Prom-Wormley EC, Eaves LJ, Foley DL, Gardner CO, Archer KJ, Wormley BK, Maes HH, Riley BP, Silberg JL (2009) Monoamine oxidase A and childhood adversity as risk factors for conduct disorder in females. Psychol Med 39:579–590PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Rajender S, Pandu G, Sharma JD, Gandhi KPC, Singh L, Thangaraj K (2008) Reduced CAG repeats length in androgen receptor gene is associated with violent criminal behavior. Int J Legal Med 122:367–372PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Reif A, Rösler M, Freitag CM, Schneider M, Eujen A, Kissling C, Wenzler D, Jacob CP, Retz-Junginger P, Thome J, Lesch KP, Retz W (2007) Nature and nurture predispose to violent behavior: serotonergic genes and adverse childhood environment. Neuropsychopharmacology 32:2375–2383PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Reif A, Jacob CP, Rujescu D, Herterich S, Lang S, Gutknecht L, Baehne CG, Strobel A, Freitag CM, Giegling I, Romanos M, Hartmann A, Rosler M, Renner TJ, Fallgatter AJ, Retz W, Ehlis AC, Lesch KP (2009) Influence of functional variant of neuronal nitric oxide synthase on impulsive behaviors in humans. Arch Gen Psychiatry 66:41–50PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Rhee SH, Waldman ID (2002) Genetic and environmental influences on antisocial behavior: a meta-analysis of twin and adoption studies. Psychol Bull 128:490–529PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Robertson D, Flattem N, Tellioglu T, Carson R, Garland E, Shannon JR, Jordan J, Jacob G, Blakely RD, Biaggioni I (2001) Familial orthostatic tachycardia due to norepinephrine transporter deficiency. Ann N Y Acad Sci 940:527–543PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Rogeness GA, Hernandez JM, Macedo CA, Mitchell EL (1982) Biochemical differences in children with conduct disorder socialized and undersocialized. Am J Psychiatry 139:307–311PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Rujescu D, Giegling I, Sato T, Moller HJ (2003) Lack of association between serotonin 5-HT1B receptor gene polymorphism and suicidal behavior. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet 116B:69–71PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Sabol SZ, Hu S, Hamer D (1998) A functional polymorphism in the monoamine oxidase A gene promoter. Hum Genet 103:273–279PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Sanders AR, Duan J, Gejman PV (2002) DNA variation and psychopharmacology of the human serotonin receptor 1B (HTR1B) gene. Pharmacogenomics 3:745–762PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Shirtcliff EA, Granger DA, Booth A, Johnson D (2005) Low salivary cortisol levels and externalizing behavior problems in youth. Dev Psychopathol 17:167–184PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Siever LJ (2008) Neurobiology of aggression and violence. Am J Psychiatry 165:429–442PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Silver JM, Yudofsky SC, Slater JA, Gold RK, Stryer BL, Williams DT, Wolland H, Endicott J (1999) Propranolol treatment of chronically hospitalized aggressive patients. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci 11:328–335PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Sjoberg RL, Nilsson KW, Wargelius HL, Leppert J, Lindstrom L, Oreland L (2007) Adolescent girls and criminal activity: role of MAOA-LPR genotype and psychosocial factors. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet 144B:159–164PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Sjoberg RL, Ducci F, Barr CS, Newman TK, Dell’osso L, Virkkunen M, Goldman D (2008) A non-additive interaction of a functional MAO-A VNTR and testosterone predicts antisocial behavior. Neuropsychopharmacology 33:425–430PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Soyka M, Preuss UW, Koller G, Zill P, Bondy B (2004) Association of 5-HT1B receptor gene and antisocial behavior in alcoholism. J Neural Transm 111:101–109PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Stefulj J, Buttner A, Skavic J, Zill P, Balija M, Eisenmenger W, Bondy B, Jernej B (2004) Serotonin 1B (5HT-1B) receptor polymorphism (G861C) in suicide victims: association studies in German and Slavic population. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet 127B:48–50PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Taylor A, Kim-Cohen J (2007) Meta-analysis of gene-environment interactions in developmental psychopathology. Dev Psychopathol 19:1029–1037PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Tremblay RE, Hartup WW, Archer J (2005) Developmental origins of aggression. Guildford Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  100. Turner (1994) Genetic and hormonal influence on male violence. In: Archer J (ed) Male violence. Routledge, New York, pp 233–252Google Scholar
  101. van Bokhoven I, Van Goozen SHM, van Engeland H, Schaal B, Arseneault L, Seguin JR, Nagin DS, Vitaro F, Tremblay RE (2005) Salivary cortisol and aggression in a population-based longitudinal study of adolescent males. J Neural Transm 112:1083–1096PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Veenema AH, Bredewold R, Neumann ID (2007) Opposite effects of maternal separation on intermale and maternal aggression in C57BL/6 mice: Link to hypothalamic vasopressin and oxytocin immunoreactivity. Psychoneuroendocrinology 32:437–450PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Virkkunen M (1983) Insulin-secretion during the glucose-tolerance test in antisocial personality. Brit J Psychiatry 142:598–604Google Scholar
  104. Virkkunen M (1986) Insulin-secretion during the glucose-tolerance test among habitually violent and impulsive offenders. Aggress Behav 12:303–310Google Scholar
  105. Virkkunen M, Huttunen MO (1982) Evidence for abnormal glucose-tolerance test among violent offenders. Neuropsychobiology 8:30–34PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Virkkunen M, Rissanen A, Naukkarinen H, Franssila-Kallunki A, Linnoila M, Tiihonen J (2007) Energy substrate: metabolism among habitually violent alcoholic offenders having antisocial personality disorder. Psychiatry Res 150:287–295PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Walitza S, Renner TJ, Dempfle A, Konrad K, Wewetzer C, Halbach A, Herpertz-Dahlmann B, Remschmidt H, Smidt J, Linder M, Flierl L, Knolker U, Friedel S, Schafer H, Gross C, Hebebrand J, Warnke A, Lesch KP (2005) Transmission disequilibrium of polymorphic variants in the tryptophan hydroxylase-2 gene in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Mol Psychiatry 10:1126–1132PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Walther DJ, Bader M (2003) A unique central tryptophan hydroxylase isoform. Biochem Pharmacol 66:1673–1680PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Wassink TH, Piven J, Vieland VJ, Pietila J, Goedken RJ, Folstein SE, Sheffield VC (2004) Examination of AVPR1a as an autism susceptibility gene. Mol Psychiatry 9:968–972PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Weaver ICG, Cervoni N, Champagne FA, D’Alessio AC, Sharma S, Seckl JR, Dymov S, Szyf M, Meaney MJ (2004) Epigenetic programming by maternal behavior. Nat Neurosci 7:847–854PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Weber YG, Storch A, Wuttke TV, Brockmann K, Kempfle J, Maljevic S, Margari L, Kamm C, Schneider SA, Huber SM, Pekrun A, Roebling R, Seebohm G, Koka S, Lang C, Kraft E, Blazevic D, Salvo-Vargas A, Fauler M, Mottaghy FM, Munchau A, Edwards MJ, Presicci A, Margari F, Gasser T, Lang F, Bhatia KP, Lehmann-Horn F, Lerche H (2008) GLUT1 mutations are a cause of paroxysmal exertion-induced dyskinesias and induce hemolytic anemia by a cation leak. J Clin Invest 118:2157–2168PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Weder N, Yang BZ, Douglas-Palumberi H, Massey J, Krystal JH, Gelernter J, Kaufman J (2009) MAOA genotype, maltreatment, and aggressive behavior: the changing impact of genotype at varying levels of trauma. Biol Psychiatry 65:417–424PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Widom CS, Brzustowicz LM (2006) MAOA and the “cycle of violence:” childhood abuse and neglect, MAOA genotype, and risk for violent and antisocial behavior. Biol Psychiatry 60:684–689PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Wilson M, Daly M (1985) Competitiveness, risk-taking, and violence—the Young Male Syndrome. Ethol Sociobiol 6:59–73Google Scholar
  115. Yamakawa M, Fukushima A, Sakuma K, Yanagisawa Y, Kagawa Y (2005) Serotonin transporter polymorphisms affect human blood glucose control. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 334:1165–1171PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Yamamoto H, Nagai K, Nakagawa H (1984) Additional evidence that the suprachiasmatic nucleus is the center for regulation of insulin secretion and glucose homeostasis. Brain Res 304:237–241PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Yu YZ, Shi JX (2009) Relationship between levels of testosterone and cortisol in saliva and aggressive behaviors of adolescents. Biomed Environ Sci 22:44–49PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Yudofsky SC, Silver JM, Hales RM (1998) Treatment of agitation and aggression. In: Schatzberg AF, Nemeroff CB (eds) American Psychiatric Press textbook of psychopharmacology, 2nd edn. American Psychiatric Press, Washington, DC, pp 881–900Google Scholar
  119. Zhang XD, Beaulieu JM, Sotnikova TD, Gainetdinov RR, Caron MG (2004) Tryptophan hydroxylase-2 controls brain serotonin synthesis. Science 305:217PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Zill P, Buttner A, Eisenmenger W, Moller HJ, Ackenheil M, Bondy B (2007) Analysis of tryptophan hydroxylase I and II mRNA expression in the human brain: a post-mortem study. J Psychiatr Res 41:168–173PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.SGDP CentreInstitute of PsychiatryLondonUK

Personalised recommendations