X chromosome inactivation in clinical practice
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- Ørstavik, K.H. Hum Genet (2009) 126: 363. doi:10.1007/s00439-009-0670-5
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X chromosome inactivation (XCI) is the transcriptional silencing of the majority of genes on one of the two X chromosomes in mammalian females. Females are, therefore, mosaics for two cell lines, one with the maternal X and one with the paternal X as the active chromosome. The relative proportion of the two cell lines, the X inactivation pattern, may be analyzed by simple assays in DNA from available tissues. This review focuses on medical issues related to XCI in X-linked disorders, and on the value of X inactivation analysis in clinical practice.