Maternal cigarette smoking, metabolic gene polymorphisms, and preterm delivery: new insights on G×E interactions and pathogenic pathways
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Preterm delivery (PTD, <37 weeks of gestation) is a significant clinical and public health problem. Previously, we reported that maternal smoking and metabolic gene polymorphisms of CYP1A1 MspI and GSTT1 synergistically increase the risk of low birth weight. This study investigates the relationship between maternal smoking and metabolic gene polymorphisms of CYP1A1 MspI and GSTT1 with preterm delivery (PTD) as a whole and preterm subgroups. This case–control study included 1,749 multi-ethnic mothers (571 with PTD and 1,178 controls) enrolled at Boston Medical Center. After adjusting covariates, regression analyses were performed to identify individual and joint associations of maternal smoking, two functional variants of CYP1A1 and GSTT1 with PTD. We observed a moderate effect of maternal smoking on PTD (OR = 1.6; 95% CI: 1.1–2.2). We found that compared to non-smoking mothers with low-risk genotypes, there was a significant joint association of maternal smoking, CYP1A1 (Aa/aa) and GSTT1 (absent) genotypes with gestational age (β = −3.37; SE = 0.86; P = 9 × 10−5) and with PTD (OR = 5.8; 95% CI: 2.0–21.1), respectively. Such joint association was particularly strong in certain preterm subgroups, including spontaneous PTD (OR = 8.3; 95% CI: 2.7–30.6), PTD < 32 weeks (OR = 11.1; 95% CI: 2.9–47.7), and PTD accompanied by histologic chorioamnionitis (OR = 15.6; 95% CI: 4.1–76.7). Similar patterns were observed across ethnic groups. Taken together, maternal smoking significantly increased the risk of PTD among women with high-risk CYP1A1 and GSTT1 genotypes. Such joint associations were strongest among PTD accompanied by histologic chorioamnionitis.
KeywordsMaternal Smoking Black Mother GSTT1 Polymorphism Joint Association GSTT1 Genotype
We are grateful to two reviewers for the very helpful comments. The study was supported in part by grants from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (R01 HD41702), National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (R01ES11682, R21ES11666), March of Dimes Birth Defects Foundation (20-FY98−0701, 20-FY02-56 and #21-FY07-605) and NICHD (K24 HD 042489).We thank the nursing staff of Labor and Delivery at Boston Medical Center for their continuous support and assistance to the study and Lingling Fu for data management, and Ann Ramsay for administrative support. We would like to particularly thank the outstanding expert consultants of the BMC Preterm Study team: Drs. Paul Wise, Jerome Klein, John M. Kasznica, and Milton Kotelchuck. Finally, we thank all of the participating mothers and their families.
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