A most distant intergeneric hybrid offspring (Larcon) of lesser apes, Nomascus leucogenys and Hylobates lar
Unlike humans, which are the sole remaining representatives of a once larger group of bipedal apes (hominins), the “lesser apes” (hylobatids) are a diverse radiation with numerous extant species. Consequently, the lesser apes can provide a valuable evolutionary window onto the possible interactions (e.g., interbreeding) of hominin lineages coexisting in the same time and place. In the present work, we employ chromosomal analyses to verify the hybrid ancestry of an individual (Larcon) produced by two of the most distant genera of lesser apes, Hylobates (lar-group gibbons) and Nomascus (concolor-group gibbons). In addition to a mixed pelage pattern, the hybrid animal carries a 48-chromosome karyotype that consists of the haploid complements of each parental species: Hylobates lar (n = 22) and Nomascus leucogenys leucogenys (n = 26). Studies of this animal’s karyotype shed light onto the processes of speciation and genus-level divergence in the lesser apes and, by extension, across the Hominoidea.
KeywordsChromosome Painting Hybrid Offspring Nucleolar Dominance Cheek Patch Pelage Pattern
We thank C. P. Groves for his valuable comments to the manuscript and A. Tosi for his critical reading and revising of the manuscript. This study was supported by the twenty-first century COE (A14) and the Global COE (A06).
- Brockelman WY, Gittins SP (1984) Natural hybridization in the Hylobates lar species group: implications for speciation in gibbons. In: Preushoft H, Chivers DJ, Brockelman WY, Creel N (eds) The lesser apes. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh, pp 498–532Google Scholar
- Chiarelli B (1972) The karyotypes of the gibbons. In: Rumbaugh DM (ed) Gibbon and Siamang, vol 1. Karger, Basel, pp 90–102Google Scholar
- Groves CP (1972) Systematics and phylogeny of gibbons. In: Rumbaugh DM (ed) Gibbon and Siamang, vol 1. Karger, Basel, pp 1–89Google Scholar
- Groves C (2001) Primate taxonomy. Smithonian Institution Press, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
- Marshall J, Sugardjito J (1986) Gibbon systematics. In: Swindler DR, Erwin J (eds) Comparative primate biology, vol 1, systematics, evolution, and anatomy. Alan R. Liss, New York, pp 137–185Google Scholar
- Neusser M, Munch M, Anzenberger G, Müller S (2005) Investigation of marmoset hybrids (Cebuella pygmaea × Callithrix jacchus) and related Callitrichinae (Platyrrhini) by cross-species chromosome painting and comparative genomic hybridization. Cytogenet Genome Res 108:191–196PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Primate Research Institute, Kyoto University (2002) Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Primates, 2nd edn. Primate Research Institute, Kyoto University, InuyamaGoogle Scholar
- The Zoological Society of London (1970) Species of wild animals bred captivity during 1968. International Zoo Yearbook, vol 10, p 257Google Scholar
- van Gelder RG (1977) Mammalian hybrids and generic limits. Am Museum Novitates 2635:1–25Google Scholar