Towards second-generation STS (sequence-tagged sites) linkage maps in conifers: a genetic map of Norway spruce (Picea abies K.)
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Genetic linkage maps have been produced for a wide range of organisms during the last decade, thanks to the increasing availability of molecular markers. The use of microsatellites (or Simple Sequence Repeats, SSRs) as genetic markers has led to the construction of “second-generation” genetic maps for humans, mouse and other organisms of major importance. We constructed a second-generation single-tree genetic linkage map of Norway spruce (Picea abies K.) using a panel of 72 haploid megagametophytes with a total of 447 segregating bands [366 Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphisms (AFLPs), 20 Selective Amplification of Microsatellite Polymorphic Loci (SAMPLs) and 61 SSRs, each single band being treated initially as a dominant marker]. Four hundred and thirteen markers were mapped in 29 linkage groups (including triplets and doublets) covering a genetic length of 2198.3 cM, which represents 77.4% of the estimated genome length of Picea abies (approximately 2839 cM). The map is still far from coalescing into the expected 12 chromosomal linkage groups of Norway spruce (2n = 2x = 24). A possible explanation for this comes from the observed non-random distribution of markers in the framework map. Thirty-eight SSR marker loci could be mapped onto 19 linkage groups. This set of highly informative Sequence Tagged Sites (STSs) can be used in many aspects of genetic analysis of forest trees, such as marker-assisted selection, QTL mapping, positional cloning, gene flow analysis, mating system analysis and genetic diversity studies.
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