A novel single-base mutation in CaBRI1 confers dwarf phenotype and brassinosteroid accumulation in pepper

  • Bozhi Yang
  • Shudong Zhou
  • Lijun Ou
  • Feng Liu
  • Liying Yang
  • Jingyuan Zheng
  • Wenchao Chen
  • Zhuqing Zhang
  • Sha Yang
  • Yanqing Ma
  • Xuexiao ZouEmail author
Original Article


Dwarfing is the development trend of pepper breeding. It is of great practical and scientific value to generate new dwarf germplasms, and identify new genes or alleles conferring dwarf traits in pepper. In our previous study, a weakly BR-insensitive dwarf mutant, E29, was obtained by EMS mutagenesis of the pepper inbred line 6421. It can be used as a good parent material for breeding new dwarf varieties. Here, we found that this dwarf phenotype was controlled by a single recessive gene. Whole-genome resequencing, dCAPs analysis, and VIGs validation revealed that this mutation was caused by a nonsynonymous single-nucleotide mutation (C to T) in CaBRI1. An enzyme activity assay, transcriptome sequencing, and BL content determination further revealed that an amino-acid change (Pro1157Ser) in the serine/threonine protein kinase and catalytic (S_TKc) domain of CaBRI1 impaired its kinase activity and caused the transcript levels of two important genes (CaDWF4 and CaROT3) participating in BR biosynthesis to increase dramatically in the E29 mutant, accompanied by significantly increased accumulation of brassinolide (BL). Therefore, we concluded that the novel single-base mutation in CaBRI1 conferred the dwarf phenotype and resulted in brassinosteroid (BR) accumulation in pepper. This study provides a new allelic variant of the height-regulating gene CaBRI1 that has theoretical and practical values for the breeding of the plants suitable for the facility cultivation and mechanized harvesting of pepper varieties.


Pepper Dwarf mutant Brassinosteroid CaBRI1 


Authors’ contributions

BZY and SDZ performed the experiments and wrote this manuscript. LJO and FL helped data analysis. LYY, JYZ, WCC, ZQZ, and SY assisted in the experiments. YQM and XXZ supervised the study. All authors read, commented, and approved the submitted and final versions.


This study was funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 31601757).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

All the authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Supplementary material

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Supplementary material 1 (XLS 81 kb)
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Supplementary material 1 (XLSX 120 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bozhi Yang
    • 1
    • 2
  • Shudong Zhou
    • 2
  • Lijun Ou
    • 2
  • Feng Liu
    • 2
  • Liying Yang
    • 2
  • Jingyuan Zheng
    • 2
  • Wenchao Chen
    • 2
  • Zhuqing Zhang
    • 2
  • Sha Yang
    • 2
  • Yanqing Ma
    • 2
  • Xuexiao Zou
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Longping Branch of Central South UniversityChangshaChina
  2. 2.Vegetable Institution of Hunan Academy of Agricultural ScienceChangshaChina

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