Genetic analysis of threshability and other spike traits in the evolution of cultivated emmer to fully domesticated durum wheat
- 144 Downloads
Genetic mutations in genes governing wheat threshability were critical for domestication. Knowing when these genes mutated during wheat evolution will provide more insight into the domestication process and lead to further exploitation of primitive alleles for wheat improvement. We evaluated a population of recombinant inbred lines derived from a cross between the durum variety Rusty and the cultivated emmer accession PI 193883 for threshability, rachis fragility, and other spike-related traits. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with spike length, spikelets per spike, and spike compactness were primarily associated with known genes such as the pleiotropic domestication gene Q. Interestingly, rachis fragility was not associated with the Q locus, suggesting that this trait, usually a pleiotropic effect of the q allele, can be influenced by the genetic background. Threshability QTL were identified on chromosome arms 2AS, 2BS, and 5AL corresponding to the tenacious glume genes Tg2A and Tg2B as well as the Q gene, respectively, further demonstrating that cultivated emmer harbors the primitive non-free-threshing alleles at all three loci. Genetic analysis indicated that the effects of the three genes are mostly additive, with Q having the most profound effects on threshability, and that free-threshing alleles are necessary at all three loci to attain a completely free-threshing phenotype. These findings provide further insight into the timeline and possible pathways of wheat domestication and evolution that led to the formation of modern day domesticated wheats.
KeywordsDurum Wheat Tenacious glume Free-threshing Domestication Evolution
The authors thank Megan E. Overlander and Samantha Steckler for greenhouse and technical assistance. Mention of trade names or commercial products in this article is solely for the purpose of providing specific information and does not imply recommendation or endorsement by the U.S. Department of Agriculture. USDA is an equal opportunity provider and employer.
This research was supported in part by funds to S.S.X. provided through a grant from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation to Cornell University for the Borlaug Global Rust Initiative (BGRI) Durable Rust Resistance in Wheat (DRRW) Project and the U.S. Department of Agriculture–Agriculture Research Service (USDA–ARS) Current Research Information System (CRIS) Project No. 3060-21000-038-00D.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
Jyoti Sharma declares that she has no conflict of interest, Katherine Running declares that she has no conflict of interest, Steven Xu declares that he has no conflict of interest, Qijun Zhang declares that he has no conflict of interest, Amanda Peters Haugrud declares that she has no conflict of interest, Sapna Sharma declares that she has no conflict of interest, Phillip McClean declares that he has no conflict of interest, and Justin Faris declares that he has no conflict of interest.
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
- Ankerst M, Breunig MM, Kriegel H-P, Sander J (1999) OPTICS: Ordering points to identify the clustering structure. In: Delis A, Faloutsos C and Ghandeharizadeh S (eds), Proceedings ACM SIGMOD’99 international conference on management of data, ACM Press, Philadelphia, pp 49–60Google Scholar
- Avni R, Nave M, Barad O, Baruch K, Twardziok SO, Gundlach H, Hale I, Mascher M, Spannagl M, Wiebe K, Jordan KW, Golan G, Deek J, Ben-Zvi B, Ben-Zvi G, Himmelbach A, MacLachlan RP, Sharpe AG, Fritz A, Ben-David R, Budak H, Fahima T, Korol A, Faris JD, Hernandez A, Mikel MA, Levy AA, Steffenson B, Maccaferri M, Tuberosa R, Cattivelli L, Faccioli P, Ceriotti A, Kashkush K, Pourkheirandish M, Komatsuda T, Eilam T, Sela H, Sharon A, Ohad N, Chamovitz DA, Mayer KFX, Stein N, Ronen G, Peleg Z, Pozniak CJ, Akhunov ED, Distelfeld A (2017) Wild emmer genome architecture and diversity elucidate wheat evolution and domestication. Science 357:93–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Faris JD, Fellers JP, Brooks SA, Gill BS (2003) A bacterial artificial chromosome contig spanning the major domestication locus Q in wheat and identification of a candidate gene. Genetics 164:311–321Google Scholar
- Faris JD, Simons KJ, Zhang Z, Gill BS (2005) The wheat super domestication gene Q. Wheat Info Serv 100:129–148Google Scholar
- Kislev ME (1980) Triticum parvicoccum, the oldest naked wheat. Isr J Bot 28:95–107Google Scholar
- Leighty CE, Boshnakian S (1921) Genetic behaviour of the spelt form in crosses between Triticum spelta and Triticum aestivum. J Agric Res 7:335–364Google Scholar
- Levene H (1960) Robust tests for equality of variances. In: Olkin I, Hotelling H et al (eds) Contributions to probability and statistics: essays in honor of harold hotelling. Stanford University Press, Stanford, CA, pp 278–292Google Scholar
- Mackey J (1954) Neutron and X-ray experiments in wheat and a revision of the speltoid problem. Hereditas 40:65–180Google Scholar
- Muramatsu M (1979) Presence of vulgare gene, Q, in a dense-spike variety of Triticum dicoccum Schübl. Report of the Plant Germ-Plasm Institute, Kyoto University, No 4, pp 39–41Google Scholar
- Nesbitt M (2001) Wheat evolution: integrating archaeological and biological evidence. In: Caligari PDS, Brandham PE (eds) Wheat taxonomy: the legacy of John Percival. Linnean Society, London, pp 37–59 (Linnean Special Issue 3)Google Scholar
- Nesbitt M, Samuel D (1996) From staple crop to extinction? The archaeology and history of hulled wheats. In: Padulosi S, Hammer K, Heller J (eds) Hulled wheats, promoting the conservation and use of underutilized and neglected crops 4: proceedings of the first international workshop on hulled wheats. Castelvecchio Pascoli, Tuscany, Italy, pp 41–100Google Scholar
- Pallotta MA, Warner P, Fox RL, Kuchel H, Jefferies SJ, Langridge P (2003) Marker assisted wheat breeding in the southern region of Australia. In: Pogna NE, Romano M, Pogna EA, Galterio Z (eds) Proceedings of the 10th international wheat genetics symposium, Paestum, Italy, 1–6 September, 2003. Instituto Sperimentale per la Cerealicoltura, Sant’Angelo Lodigiano, pp 789–791Google Scholar
- Peng J, Sun D, Nevo E (2011) Wild emmer wheat, Triticum dicoccoides, occupies a pivotal position in wheat domestication process. Aust J Crop Sci 5:1127–1143Google Scholar
- Röder MS, Korzun V, Wendehake K, Plaschke J, Tixier MH, Leroy P, Ganal MW (1998b) A microsatellite map of wheat. Genetics 149:2007–2023Google Scholar
- SAS Institute (2011) SAS/STAT 9.3 User’s Guide. SAS Institute Inc., CaryGoogle Scholar
- Sears ER (1954) The aneuploids of common wheat. Mo Agr Exp Stn Res Bull 572:1–59Google Scholar
- Sears ER (1956) The systematics, cytology and genetics of wheat. handb pflanzenzücht, vol. 2, 2nd edn, pp 164–187Google Scholar
- Snedecor GW, Cochran WG (1989) Statistical methods, Eighth Edition. Iowa State University Press, AmesGoogle Scholar
- Thanh PT, Vladutu CI, Kianian SF, Thanh PT, Ishii T, Nitta M, Nasuda S, Mori N (2013) Molecular genetic analysis of domestication traits in emmer wheat. I: map construction and QTL analysis using an F2 population. Biotechnology 27:3627–3637Google Scholar
- Wang S, Wong D, Forrest K, Allen A, Chao S, Huang BE, Maccaferri M, Salvi S, Milner SG, Cattivelli L, Mastrangelo AM, Whan A, Stephen S, Barker G, Wieseke R, Plieske J, International Wheat Genome Sequencing Consortium, Lillemo M, Mather D, Appels R, Dolferus R, Brown-Guedira G, Korol A, Akhunova AR, Feuillet C, Salse J, Morgante M, Pozniak C, Luo M-C, Dvorak J, Morell M, Dubcovsky J, Ganal M, Tuberosa R, Lawley C, Mikoulitch I, Cavanagh C, Edwards KJ, Hayden M, Akhunov E (2014) Characterization of polyploid wheat genomic diversity using a high-density 90 000 single nucleotide polymorphism array. Plant Biotechnol J 12:787–796CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Zhang ZC, Belcram H, Gornicki P, Charles M, Just J, Huneau C, Magdelenat G, Couloux A, Samain S, Gill BS, Rasmussen JB, Barbe V, Faris JD, Chalhoub B (2011) Duplication and partitioning in evolution and function of homoeologous Q loci governing domestication characters in polyploid wheat. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 108:18737–18742CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Zou J, Semagn K, Iqbal M, Chen H, Asif M, N’Diaye A, Navabi A, Perez-Lara E, Pozniak C, Yang RC, Randhawa H, Spaner D (2017) QTLs associated with agronomic traits in the Attila × CDC Go spring wheat population evaluated under conventional management. PLoS ONE 12:e0171528. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0171528 CrossRefGoogle Scholar