Transcriptome analysis in Malus halliana roots in response to iron deficiency reveals insight into sugar regulation
Iron (Fe) deficiency is a frequent nutritional problem limiting apple production in calcareous soils. The utilization of rootstock that is resistant to Fe deficiency is an effective way to solve this problem. Malus halliana is an Fe deficiency-tolerant rootstock; however, few molecular studies have been conducted on M. halliana. In the present work, a transcriptome analysis was combined with qRT-PCR and sugar measurements to investigate Fe deficiency responses in M. halliana roots at 0 h (T1), 12 h (T2) and 72 h (T3) after Fe deficiency stress. Total of 2473, 661, and 776 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in the pairs of T2 vs. T1, T3 vs. T1, and T3 vs. T2, respectively. Several DEGs were enriched in the photosynthesis, glycolysis and gluconeogenesis, tyrosine metabolism and fatty acid degradation pathways. The glycolysis and photosynthesis pathways were upregulated under Fe deficiency. In this experiment, sucrose accumulated in Fe-deficient roots and leaves. However, the glucose content significantly decreased in the roots, while the fructose content significantly decreased in the leaves. Additionally, 15 genes related to glycolysis and sugar synthesis and sugar transport were selected to validate the accuracy of the transcriptome data by qRT-PCR. Overall, these results indicated that sugar synthesis and metabolism in the roots were affected by Fe deficiency. Sugar regulation is a way by which M. halliana responds to Fe deficiency stress.
KeywordsRNA-Seq Fe deficiency Sugar Glycolysis Apple Malus halliana
This work was supported by Gansu Agricultural University Youth Postgraduate Tutor Support Fund Project (project No. GAU-2NDS-201710), Gansu Education Department University Research Project (project No. 2018A-035) and Lanzhou Science and Technology Bureau Program (project No. 2015-3-76).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
All authors declare that we have no conflict of interest.
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
- Han ZH, Wang Q, Shen T (1994) Comparison of some physiological and biochemical characteristics between iron-efficient and inefficient species in the genus Malus. J Plant Nutr 17:230–241Google Scholar
- Loescher WH, Mccamant T, Keller JD (1990) Carbohydrate reserves, translocation, and storage in woody plant roots. Hortscience 25(3):274–281Google Scholar
- Rellán-Alvarez R, Andaluz S, Rodríguez-Celma J, Wohlgemuth G, Zocchi G, Alvarez-Fernández A, Fiehn O, López-Millán AF, Abadía J (2010) Changes in the proteomic and metabolic profiles of Beta vulgaris root tips in response to iron deficiency and resupply. BMC Plant Biol 10:120CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Reuscher S, Fukao Y, Morimoto R, Otagaki S, Oikawa A, Isuzugawa K, Shiratake K (2016) Quantitative proteomics based reconstruction and identification of metabolic pathways and membrane transport proteins related to sugar accumulation in developing fruits of pear (Pyrus communis). Plant Cell Physiol 57(3):505–518CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Rodríguez-Celma J, Lattanzio G, Grusak MA, Abadía A, Abadía J, Lópezmillán AF (2011) Root responses of Medicago truncatula plants grown in two different iron deficiency conditions: changes in root protein profile and riboflavin biosynthesis. J Proteome Res 10(5):2590–2601CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Trapnell C, Williams BA, Pertea G, Mortazavi A, Kwan G, van Baren MJ, Salzberg SL, Wold BJ, Pachter L (2010) Transcript assembly and quantification by RNA-Seq reveals unannotated transcripts and isoform switching during cell differentiation. Nat Biotechnol 28(5):511–515CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Winter H, Huber SC (2000) Regulation of sucrose metabolism in higher plants: localization and regulation of activity of key enzymes. Crit Rev Plant Sci 35(4):253–289Google Scholar
- Zocchi G (2006) Metabolic changes in iron-stressed dicotyledonous plants. Iron nutrition in plants and rhizospheric microorganisms. Springer Netherlands, 359–370Google Scholar