Molecular Genetics and Genomics

, Volume 293, Issue 5, pp 1255–1263 | Cite as

Whole mitochondrial genome diversity in two Hungarian populations

  • Boris MalyarchukEmail author
  • Miroslava Derenko
  • Galina Denisova
  • Andrey Litvinov
  • Urszula Rogalla
  • Katarzyna Skonieczna
  • Tomasz Grzybowski
  • Klára Pentelényi
  • Zsuzsanna Guba
  • Tamás Zeke
  • Mária Judit Molnár
Original Article


Complete mitochondrial genomics is an effective tool for studying the demographic history of human populations, but there is still a deficit of mitogenomic data in European populations. In this paper, we present results of study of variability of 80 complete mitochondrial genomes in two Hungarian populations from eastern part of Hungary (Szeged and Debrecen areas). The genetic diversity of Hungarian mitogenomes is remarkably high, reaching 99.9% in a combined sample. According to the analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA), European populations showed a low, but statistically significant level of between-population differentiation (Fst = 0.61%, p = 0), and two Hungarian populations demonstrate lack of between-population differences. Phylogeographic analysis allowed us to identify 71 different mtDNA sub-clades in Hungarians, sixteen of which are novel. Analysis of ancestry-informative mtDNA sub-clades revealed a complex genetic structure associated with the genetic impact of populations from different parts of Eurasia, though the contribution from European populations is the most pronounced. At least 8% of ancestry-informative haplotypes found in Hungarians demonstrate similarity with East and West Slavic populations (sub-clades H1c23a, H2a1c1, J2b1a6, T2b25a1, U4a2e, K1c1j, and I1a1c), while the influence of Siberian populations is not so noticeable (sub-clades A12a, C4a1a, and probably U4b1a4).


Complete mitochondrial genomes Hungarians Genetic diversity Phylogeny Molecular phylogeography 



This study was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (grant number 16-34-00014) and the Wenner-Gren Foundation (Grant number ICRG-117).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

There is conflict of interest as given here: Prof. Maria Judit Molnár (the Institute of Genomic Medicine and Rare Disorders at Semmelweis University) is also in collaboration with laboratory in the Hungarian Archeological Institute, which does not support and appreciate the work of Molecular Anthropology Research Group presented here by Drs. Zsuzsanna Guba and Tamas Zeke.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

Supplementary material

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Supplementary material 1 (XLSX 118 KB)
438_2018_1458_MOESM2_ESM.xlsx (16 kb)
Supplementary material 2 (XLSX 16 KB)
438_2018_1458_MOESM3_ESM.docx (16 kb)
Supplementary material 3 (DOCX 15 KB)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Boris Malyarchuk
    • 1
    Email author
  • Miroslava Derenko
    • 1
  • Galina Denisova
    • 1
  • Andrey Litvinov
    • 1
  • Urszula Rogalla
    • 2
  • Katarzyna Skonieczna
    • 2
  • Tomasz Grzybowski
    • 2
  • Klára Pentelényi
    • 3
  • Zsuzsanna Guba
    • 4
  • Tamás Zeke
    • 4
  • Mária Judit Molnár
    • 3
  1. 1.Genetics Laboratory, Institute of Biological Problems of the NorthRussian Academy of SciencesMagadanRussia
  2. 2.Department of Forensic Medicine, Ludwik Rydygier Collegium MedicumNicolaus Copernicus UniversityBydgoszczPoland
  3. 3.Institute of Genomic Medicine and Rare DisordersSemmelweis UniversityBudapestHungary
  4. 4.Hungarian Molecular Anthropological Research GroupDebrecenHungary

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