Molecular Genetics and Genomics

, Volume 292, Issue 4, pp 883–894 | Cite as

A study of the Bodrogköz population in north-eastern Hungary by Y chromosomal haplotypes and haplogroups

  • Horolma PamjavEmail author
  • Á. Fóthi
  • T. Fehér
  • Erzsébet FóthiEmail author
Original Article


We have determined the distribution of Y chromosomal haplotypes and haplogroups in population samples from one of the most important areas in north-eastern Hungary from many villages in the Bodrogköz. The Bodrogköz region was chosen due to its isolated nature, because this area was a moorland encircled by the Tisza, Bodrog, and Latorca Rivers and inhabitants of this part of Hungary escaped from both Tatar and Ottoman invasions, which decimated the post-Hungarian Conquest populations in many parts of the country. Furthermore, in the first half of the tenth century, this region served as the Palatial Centre and burial grounds of the Hungarian tribes. It has thus been assumed that the present population in this area is likely to be more similar to the population that lived in the Conquest period. We analysed male-specific markers, 23 Y-STRs and more than 30 Y-SNPs, that reflect the past and recent genetic history. We found that the general haplogroup distribution of the samples showed high genetic similarity to non-Bodrogköz Hungarians and neighbouring populations, despite its sheltered location and historical record. We were able to classify the Y-chromosomal haplogroups into four large groups based on STR mutation events: pre-Roman/Roman ancient lineage, Finno-Ugric speakers arriving into the Carpathian Basin, Migration period admixture, and post-Hungarian Conquest admixture. It is clear that a significantly larger database with deep haplogroup resolution, including ancient DNA data, is required to strengthen this research.


Y haplogroup and Y haplotype analysis Phylogenetic study Recent Bodrogköz Hungarian population Hungarian ancient history 



This work was supported by Grant No. GF/JSZF/814/9/2015 and by encouragement from Professor Miklós Maróth: both are much appreciated. We are deeply grateful to Éva Mayer, who helped our work in every conceivable manner, and special thanks also go to Dr. Eva Susa for her support and to George L. Gabor Miklos and Ariana Gugora for English editing. We also thank all the sample donors and the laboratory assistants. Lastly, we thank Professors Gyula Viga, József Fehér and Tamás Oláh, who assisted with sample collection.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Research involving human participants and/or animals

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Supplementary material

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Supplementary material 1 (DOC 107 kb)
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Supplementary material 5 (XLS 53 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.National Centre of Forensic Experts and ResearchBudapestHungary
  2. 2.Department of Genetics, Faculty of SciencesEötvös Loránd UniversityBudapestHungary
  3. 3.Research Centre for Natural Sciences, Institute of EnzymologyBudapestHungary
  4. 4.The Hungarian Magyar Family Tree DNA ProjectBudapestHungary
  5. 5.Department of AnthropologyHungarian Natural History MuseumBudapestHungary

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