DNA methylation patterns of behavior-related gene promoter regions dissect the gray wolf from domestic dog breeds
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A growing body of evidence highlights the relationship between epigenetics, especially DNA methylation, and population divergence as well as speciation. However, little is known about how general the phenomenon of epigenetics-wise separation of different populations is, or whether population assignment is, possible based on solely epigenetic marks. In the present study, we compared DNA methylation profiles between four different canine populations: three domestic dog breeds and their ancestor the gray wolf. Altogether, 79 CpG sites constituting the 65 so-called CpG units located in the promoter regions of genes affecting behavioral and temperamental traits (COMT, HTR1A, MAOA, OXTR, SLC6A4, TPH1, WFS1)—regions putatively targeted during domestication and breed selection. Methylation status of buccal cells was assessed using EpiTYPER technology. Significant inter-population methylation differences were found in 52.3% of all CpG units investigated. DNA methylation profile-based hierarchical cluster analysis indicated an unambiguous segregation of wolf from domestic dog. In addition, one of the three dog breeds (Golden Retriever) investigated also formed a separate, autonomous group. The findings support that population segregation is interrelated with shifts in DNA methylation patterns, at least in putative selection target regions, and also imply that epigenetic profiles could provide a sufficient basis for population assignment of individuals.
KeywordsDNA methylation Canine Population assignment Domestication Behavior Promoter
This study was funded by the National Scientific Fund of Hungary (Grant numbers OTKA ANN 107726 and OTKA K 112138), the Austrian Science Fund (Grant number FWF I 1271-B24), and the Vienna Science and Technology Fund (Grant number WWTF CS11-026). Eniko Kubinyi was supported by the Bolyai Foundation. The authors would like to thank Peter Marx for providing help with wolf sequence data collection and analysis.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
All the authors declare no conflict of interest.
All applicable international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed. This article does not contain any studies with human participants performed by any of the authors.
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