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Molecular Genetics and Genomics

, Volume 292, Issue 1, pp 117–131 | Cite as

Evolutionary dynamics of meiotic recombination hotspots regulator PRDM9 in bovids

  • Sonika AhlawatEmail author
  • Sachinandan De
  • Priyanka Sharma
  • Rekha Sharma
  • Reena Arora
  • R. S. Kataria
  • T. K. Datta
  • R. K. Singh
Original Article

Abstract

Hybrid sterility or reproductive isolation in mammals has been attributed to allelic incompatibilities in a DNA-binding protein PRDM9. Not only is PRDM9 exceptional in being the only known ‘speciation gene’ in vertebrates, but it is also considered to be the fastest evolving gene in the genome. The terminal zinc finger (ZF) domain of PRDM9 specifies genome-wide meiotic recombination hotspot locations in mammals. Intriguingly, PRDM9 ZF domain is highly variable between as well as within species, possibly activating different recombination hotspots. The present study characterized the full-length coding sequence of PRDM9 in cattle and buffalo and explored the diversity of the ZF array in 514 samples from different bovids (cattle, yak, mithun, and buffalo). Substantial numerical and sequence variability were observed in the ZFs, with the number of repeats ranging from 6 to 9 in different bovines. Sequence analysis revealed the presence of 37 different ZFs in cattle, 3 in mithun, 4 in yak, and 13 in buffaloes producing 41 unique PRDM9 alleles in these species. The posterior mean of dN/dS or omega values calculated using Codeml tool of PAMLX identified sites −5, −1, +2, +3, +4, +5, and +6 in the ZF domain to be evolving positively in the studied species. Concerted evolution which typifies the evolution of this gene was consistently evident in all bovines. Our results demonstrate the extraordinary diversity of PRDM9 ZF array across bovines, reinforcing similar observations in other metazoans. The high variability is suggestive of unique repertoire of meiotic recombination hotspots in each species.

Keywords

Meiosis Recombination Speciation Positive selection Concerted evolution 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This study was supported by the Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi, India.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with animals performed by any of the authors.

Supplementary material

438_2016_1260_MOESM1_ESM.docx (22 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 22 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sonika Ahlawat
    • 1
    • 4
    Email author
  • Sachinandan De
    • 2
  • Priyanka Sharma
    • 1
  • Rekha Sharma
    • 1
  • Reena Arora
    • 1
  • R. S. Kataria
    • 1
  • T. K. Datta
    • 2
  • R. K. Singh
    • 3
  1. 1.National Bureau of Animal Genetic ResourcesKarnalIndia
  2. 2.National Dairy Research InstituteKarnalIndia
  3. 3.National Research Center on MithunNagalandIndia
  4. 4.Animal Biotechnology DivisionNBAGRKarnalIndia

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