The 5S rDNA in two Abracris grasshoppers (Ommatolampidinae: Acrididae): molecular and chromosomal organization
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The 5S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequences are subject of dynamic evolution at chromosomal and molecular levels, evolving through concerted and/or birth-and-death fashion. Among grasshoppers, the chromosomal location for this sequence was established for some species, but little molecular information was obtained to infer evolutionary patterns. Here, we integrated data from chromosomal and nucleotide sequence analysis for 5S rDNA in two Abracris species aiming to identify evolutionary dynamics. For both species, two arrays were identified, a larger sequence (named type-I) that consisted of the entire 5S rDNA gene plus NTS (non-transcribed spacer) and a smaller (named type-II) with truncated 5S rDNA gene plus short NTS that was considered a pseudogene. For type-I sequences, the gene corresponding region contained the internal control region and poly-T motif and the NTS presented partial transposable elements. Between the species, nucleotide differences for type-I were noticed, while type-II was identical, suggesting pseudogenization in a common ancestor. At chromosomal point to view, the type-II was placed in one bivalent, while type-I occurred in multiple copies in distinct chromosomes. In Abracris, the evolution of 5S rDNA was apparently influenced by the chromosomal distribution of clusters (single or multiple location), resulting in a mixed mechanism integrating concerted and birth-and-death evolution depending on the unit.
KeywordsFISH Genome Multigene family Non-transcribed spacer Repetitive DNAs
The authors are grateful to the “Parque Estadual Edmundo Navarro de Andrade” administration for sample collecting authorization and to the two anonymous reviewers for valuable suggestions. This study was partially supported by the Fundação de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo-FAPESP (process numbers 2011/19481-3 and 2014/11763-8) and Coordenadoria de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior-CAPES. DB and OMPG acknowledge the scholarships obtained from FAPESP (process numbers 2011/18028-3 and 2014/02038-8, respectively). DAM was supported by Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas-CONICET from Argentina. DCCM was the recipient of a research productivity fellowship from the Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico-CNPq (process number 304758/2014-0).
Compliance with ethical standards
This study was founded by Fundação de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo-FAPESP (process numbers 2011/19481-3 and 2014/11763-8) and Coordenadoria de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior-CAPES.
Conflict of interest
Danilo Bueno declares that he has no conflict of interest. Octavio Manuel Palacios-Gimenez declares that he has no conflict of interest. Dardo Andrea Martí declares that he has no conflict of interest. Tatiane Casagrande Mariguela declares that she has no conflict of interest. Diogo Cavalcanti Cabral-de-Mello declares that he has no conflict of interest.
All applicable international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed.
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