Comprehensive molecular characterization of the α/β-gliadin multigene family in hexaploid wheat
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To characterize the structure and expression of a large multigene family of α/β-gliadin genes, 90 individual α/β-gliadin genes harboring a promoter region were identified in the wheat cultivar Chinese Spring. These genes were classified into eleven groups by phylogenetic analysis, and the chromosomes they were derived from were determined. Of these genes, 50 had the basic α/β-gliadin domains and six conserved cysteine residues and 16, 16 and 18 of them were, respectively, located on chromosome 6A, 6B and 6D. Six genes had an additional cysteine residue, suggesting that these α/β-gliadins acquired the property of binding other proteins through intermolecular disulphide bands. Expression of α/β-gliadin genes in developing seeds was measured by quantitative RT-PCR using group-specific primers over 3 years. Expression patterns of these genes on the basis of accumulated temperature were similar among gene groups, whereas expression levels differed for the 3 years. The expression of most α/β-gliadin and other prolamin genes was correlated with the sunshine duration. On the other hand, although all α/β-gliadin genes had a common E-box within the −300 promoter region, some genes showed a particular expression pattern with respect to the sunshine duration, similarly to gene encoding high-molecular weight glutenin subunits and endosperm enzymes. These observations suggested that expression of each α/β-gliadin gene is differentially regulated by multiple regulatory factors.
KeywordsTriticum aestivum Seed storage protein α/β-gliadin Multigene family Gene expression
This is contribution no. 1024 from the Kihara Institute for Biological Research, Yokohama City University.
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Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animal performed by any of the authors.
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