Transcriptomic profiles of the smoke tree wilt fungus Verticillium dahliae under nutrient starvation stresses
- 459 Downloads
Verticillium dahliae is a notorious plant pathogen that causes vascular wilt on more than 200 plant species. During plant infection, efficient pathogen nutrition during the interaction with the host is a requisite for successful infection. However, little attention has been focused on nutrient uptake and starvation responses in this fungus. Here, we used RNA-Seq to analyze the response of V. dahliae to nutrient starvation, including carbon and nitrogen depletion. Gene expression profile analysis showed that 1854 genes were differentially expressed under carbon starvation (852 upregulated and 539 downregulated genes) and nitrogen starvation (487 upregulated and 291 downregulated genes). Among the differentially expressed genes, genes involved in utilization or production acetyl-CoA, including glycolysis, fatty acid biosynthesis or metabolism, and melanin biosynthesis, were repressed under carbon starvation, whereas melanin biosynthesis genes were strongly induced under nitrogen starvation. These results, combined with VDH1 expression data, suggested that melanin biosynthesis and microsclerotia development were induced under nitrogen starvation, but microsclerotia development was suppressed under carbon starvation. Furthermore, many genes encoding carbohydrate-active enzymes and secreted proteins were induced under carbon starvation. Overall, the results improve our understanding of the response of V. dahliae to nutrient starvation and help to identify potential virulence factors for the development of novel disease control strategies.
KeywordsVerticillium dahliae Nutrient starvation Melanin biosynthesis Carbohydrate-active enzymes
The research was funded by Beijing Higher Education Young Elite Teacher Project (YETP0737), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31370013), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (BLYJ201507).
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
Compliance with ethical standards
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
- Alves SL, Herberts RA, Hollatz C, Trichez D, Miletti LC, de Araujo PS, Stambuk BU (2008) Molecular analysis of maltotriose active transport and fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae reveals a determinant role for the AGT1 permease. Appl Environ Microbiol 74:1494–1501PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Amselem J, Cuomo CA, van Kan JA, Viaud M, Benito EP, Couloux A, Coutinho PM, de Vries RP, Dyer PS, Fillinger S, Fournier E, Gout L, Hahn M, Kohn L, Lapalu N, Plummer KM, Pradier JM, Quevillon E, Sharon A, Simon A, ten Have A, Tudzynski B, Tudzynski P, Wincker P, Andrew M, Anthouard V, Beever RE, Beffa R, Benoit I, Bouzid O, Brault B, Chen Z, Choquer M, Collemare J, Cotton P, Danchin EG, Da Silva C, Gautier A, Giraud C, Giraud T, Gonzalez C, Grossetete S, Guldener U, Henrissat B, Howlett BJ, Kodira C, Kretschmer M, Lappartient A, Leroch M, Levis C, Mauceli E, Neuveglise C, Oeser B, Pearson M, Poulain J, Poussereau N, Quesneville H, Rascle C, Schumacher J, Segurens B, Sexton A, Silva E, Sirven C, Soanes DM, Talbot NJ, Templeton M, Yandava C, Yarden O, Zeng Q, Rollins JA, Lebrun MH, Dickman M (2011) Genomic analysis of the necrotrophic fungal pathogens Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Botrytis cinerea. PLoS Genet 7:e1002230PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Delmas S, Pullan ST, Gaddipati S, Kokolski M, Malla S, Blythe MJ, Ibbett R, Campbell M, Liddell S, Aboobaker A, Tucker GA, Archer DB (2012) Uncovering the genome-wide transcriptional responses of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger to lignocellulose using RNA sequencing. PLoS Genet 8:e1002875PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Dixon GR, Pegg GF (1972) Changes in amino-acid content of tomato xylem sap following infection with strains of Verticillium albo-atrum. Ann Bot 36:147–154Google Scholar
- Klosterman SJ, Subbarao KV, Kang S, Veronese P, Gold SE, Thomma BP, Chen Z, Henrissat B, Lee YH, Park J, Garcia-Pedrajas MD, Barbara DJ, Anchieta A, de Jonge R, Santhanam P, Maruthachalam K, Atallah Z, Amyotte SG, Paz Z, Inderbitzin P, Hayes RJ, Heiman DI, Young S, Zeng Q, Engels R, Galagan J, Cuomo CA, Dobinson KF, Ma LJ (2011) Comparative genomics yields insights into niche adaptation of plant vascular wilt pathogens. PLoS Pathog 7:e1002137PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Tran VT, Braus-Stromeyer SA, Kusch H, Reusche M, Kaever A, Kuhn A, Valerius O, Landesfeind M, Asshauer K, Tech M, Hoff K, Pena-Centeno T, Stanke M, Lipka V, Braus GH (2014) Verticillium transcription activator of adhesion Vta2 suppresses microsclerotia formation and is required for systemic infection of plant roots. New Phytol 202:565–581CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- van Munster JM, Daly P, Delmas S, Pullan ST, Blythe MJ, Malla S, Kokolski M, Noltorp EC, Wennberg K, Fetherston R, Beniston R, Yu X, Dupree P, Archer DB (2014) The role of carbon starvation in the induction of enzymes that degrade plant-derived carbohydrates in Aspergillus niger. Fungal Genet Biol 72:34–47PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wilhelm S (1955) Longevity of the Verticillium wilt fungus in the laboratory and field. Phytopathology 45:180–181Google Scholar