Molecular Genetics and Genomics

, Volume 288, Issue 3–4, pp 175–184 | Cite as

An active hAT transposable element causing bud mutation of carnation by insertion into the flavonoid 3′-hydroxylase gene

  • Masaki Momose
  • Masayoshi Nakayama
  • Yoshio Itoh
  • Naoyuki Umemoto
  • Toshihiro Toguri
  • Yoshihiro Ozeki
Original Paper


The molecular mechanisms underlying spontaneous bud mutations, which provide an important breeding tool in carnation, are poorly understood. Here we describe a new active hAT type transposable element, designated Tdic101, the movement of which caused a bud mutation in carnation that led to a change of flower color from purple to deep pink. The color change was attributed to Tdic101 insertion into the second intron of F3′H, the gene for flavonoid 3′-hydroxylase responsible for purple pigment production. Regions on the deep pink flowers of the mutant can revert to purple, a visible phenotype of, as we show, excision of the transposable element. Sequence analysis revealed that Tdic101 has the characteristics of an autonomous element encoding a transposase. A related, but non-autonomous element dTdic102 was found to move in the genome of the bud mutant as well. Its mobilization might be the result of transposase activities provided by other elements such as Tdic101. In carnation, therefore, the movement of transposable elements plays an important role in the emergence of a bud mutation.


hAT Active transposable element Bud mutation Flavonoid 3′-hydroxylase Dianthus 



We thank to Takayasu Hirosawa, Hiroshi Okawa and Noboru Onishi for helpful discussions. This work was partly supported by a grant from the “Technical Development Program for Making Agribusiness in the Form of Utilizing the Concentrated Know-how from the Private Sector” of the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries JAPAN.

Supplementary material

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Supplementary material 1 (DOC 56 kb)
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Supplementary material 2 (PPT 1801 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Masaki Momose
    • 1
  • Masayoshi Nakayama
    • 3
  • Yoshio Itoh
    • 2
  • Naoyuki Umemoto
    • 1
  • Toshihiro Toguri
    • 1
  • Yoshihiro Ozeki
    • 2
  1. 1.Central Laboratories for Key TechnologiesKirin Co., LtdYokohamaJapan
  2. 2.Department of Biotechnology and Life Science, Faculty of EngineeringTokyo University of Agriculture and TechnologyKoganeiJapan
  3. 3.Institute of Floricultural Science, National Agriculture and Food Research OrganizationTsukubaJapan

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