Vertical inheritance and bursts of transposition have shaped the evolution of the BS non-LTR retrotransposon in Drosophila
- 206 Downloads
The history of transposable elements over evolutionary time can often be partially reconstructed on the basis of genome analysis. In this study, we identified and extensively characterized the NLTR BS retrotransposon in 12 sequenced Drosophila genomes, by its sequence diversity within and among genomes, its degeneration pattern and its transcriptional activity. We show that the BS element has a variable copy number and patchy distribution within the Drosophila genus, that it is at distinct stages of the evolutionary cycle in the different Drosophila species and that its evolution is characterized by vertical transmission and by bursts of transposition in certain species.
KeywordsNLTR BS retrotransposon Transposition burst Transposable element vertical inheritance
Long terminal repeat
Non-long terminal repeat
Long interspersed nuclear element
Funding for this project was provided by the Brazilian agencies São Paulo Research Foundation (07/53097-0 to C.M.A.C and fellowship 07/50641-1 to A.G), the National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (to C.M.A.C) and the CAPES-PDEE (4666-08-9 to A.G.), as well as by the French Mobilité Internationale Rhône- Alpes project from the Région Rhône-Alpes (to C.V. and A.G.), the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique/São Paulo Research Foundation (joint program to C.V. and C.M.A.C.), L’Agence Nationale de la Recherche GeneMobile (to C.V) and the Institute Universitaire de France (to C.V.). We thank R. Rebollo for her comments and technical help and M. Ghosh for correcting the English text.
- Berezikov E, Bucheton A, Busseau I (2000) A search for reverse transcriptase-coding sequences reveals new non-LTR retrotransposons in the genome of Drosophila melanogaster. Genome Biol 1(6)Google Scholar
- Finnegan D (1985) Transposable Elements in Eukaryotes. International Review of Cytology-a Survey of Cell Biology 247:281–326Google Scholar
- Hall TA (1999) BioEdit: a user-friendly biological sequence alignment editor and analysis program for Windows 95/98/NT. Nucleic Acid Symp Ser 41:95–98Google Scholar
- Hey J, Kliman RM (1993) Population genetics and phylogenetics of DNA sequence variation at multiple loci within the Drosophila melanogaster species complex. Biol Evol 10:804–822Google Scholar
- Hutchison CA III, Hardies SC, Loeb DD, Shehee WR, Edgell MH (1989) LINEs and related retroposons: long interspersed repeated sequences in the eucaryotic genome. In: Berg DE, Howe MM (eds) Mobile DNA. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, pp 593–617Google Scholar
- Kaminker JS, Bergman CM, Kronmiller B, Carlson J, Svirskas R, Patel S, Frise E, Wheeler DA, Lewis SE, Rubin GM, Ashburner M, Celniker SE (2002) The transposable elements of the Drosophila melanogaster euchromatin: a genomics perspective. Genome Biol 3:0084.1–20Google Scholar
- Mizrokhi LJ, Mazo AM (1990) Evidence for horizontal transmission of the mobile element jockey between distant Drosophila species. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 87:9216–9220Google Scholar
- Pfaffl MW (2001) A new mathematical model for relative quantification in real-time RT-PCR. Nucleic Acids Res 9:29–45Google Scholar