Molecular Genetics and Genomics

, Volume 277, Issue 3, pp 301–313

Wheat VIN3-like PHD finger genes are up-regulated by vernalization

Original Paper

Abstract

The term ‘vernalization’ describes the acceleration of the transition between the vegetative and reproductive stages after exposing plants to an extended period of low temperature. In Arabidopsis, vernalization promotes flowering by silencing the flowering repressor gene FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC). Mitotically stable repression of FLC is the result of chromatin modifications mediated by the Vernalization-INsensitive 3 (VIN3) and VIN3-Like (VIL) proteins. In this study, we identified and characterized three VIL genes in diploid wheat (Triticum monococcum L.), named TmVIL1, TmVIL2, and TmVIL3. Similar to Arabidopsis VIN3, all three wheat VIL proteins carry three conserved domains including a plant homeodomain finger motif (PHD), a fibronectin type III domain (FNIII), and a VIN3 interacting domain (VID). Genetic mapping placed TmVIL1, TmVIL2, and TmVIL3 loci in the centromeric regions of chromosome 5, 6, and 1, respectively. The chromosome location of TmVIL1 is close to that of the vernalization gene VRN-D5, but more precise mapping information is required to validate this relationship. Transcription of the wheat VIL genes was up-regulated by vernalization, with a peak after 4–6 weeks of cold treatment. When transferred back to warm conditions, transcript levels of the wheat VIL genes returned to pre-vernalization levels. In addition, the transcript levels of wheat VIL genes are affected by photoperiod. This study indicates that wheat VIL genes have retained a similar structure and transcriptional regulation as their Arabidopsis VIN3/VIL homologues, suggesting that they might have retained some of their functions.

Keywords

Wheat Vernalization PHD finger VIL VIN3 

Abbreviations

dCAPS

Degenerate cleaved amplified polymorphic sequences

FLC

Flowering locus C

FNIII

Fibronectin type III

LD

Long day

PcG

Polycomb-group

PHD

Plant homeodomain

SD

Short day

VID

VIN3 interacting domain

VIL

VIN3-like

VIN3

Vernalization-INsensitive 3

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Plant SciencesUniversity of CaliforniaDavisUSA

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