Molecular Genetics and Genomics

, Volume 274, Issue 3, pp 248–263 | Cite as

Organization and evolution of resistance gene analogs in peanut

  • Bayram Yuksel
  • James C. Estill
  • Stefan R. Schulze
  • Andrew H. Paterson
Original Paper


The scarcity of genetic polymorphism in Arachis hypogaea (peanut), as in other monophyletic polyploid species, makes it especially vulnerable to nematode, bacterial, fungal, and viral pathogens. Although no disease resistance genes have been cloned from peanut itself, the conserved motifs in cloned resistance genes from other plant species provide a means to isolate and analyze similar genes from peanut. To survey the number, diversity, evolutionary history, and genomic organization of resistance gene-like sequences in peanut, we isolated 234 resistance gene analogs (RGAs) by using primers designed from conserved regions of different classes of resistance genes including NBS-LRR, and LRR-TM classes. Phylogenetic and sequence analyses were performed to explore evolutionary relationships both among peanut RGAs and with orthologous genes from other plant taxa. Fifty-six overgos designed from the RGA sequences on the basis of their phyletic association were applied to a peanut BAC library; 736 hybridizing BAC clones were fingerprinted and contigs were formed in order to gain insights into the genomic organization of these genes. All the fingerprinting gels were blotted and screened with the respective overgos in order to verify the authenticity of the hits from initial screens, and to explore the physical organization of these genes in terms of both copy number and distribution in the genome. As a result, we identified 250 putative resistance gene loci. A correlation was found between the phyletic positions of the sequences and their physical locations. The BACs isolated here will serve as a valuable resource for future applications, such as map-based cloning, and will help improve our understanding of the evolution and organization of these genes in the peanut genome.


Arachis hypogaea NBS-LRR Physical mapping TM-LRR RGA 

Supplementary material

438_2005_22_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (499 kb)
Supplementary material


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bayram Yuksel
    • 1
  • James C. Estill
    • 1
  • Stefan R. Schulze
    • 1
  • Andrew H. Paterson
    • 1
  1. 1.Plant Genome Mapping LaboratoryThe University of GeorgiaAthensUSA

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