Parasitology Research

, Volume 118, Issue 12, pp 3253–3265 | Cite as

A new species of Clinostomum Leidy, 1856 in East Asia based on genomic and morphological data

  • Sean A. LockeEmail author
  • Monica Caffara
  • Daniel Barčák
  • Pasaikou Sonko
  • Perla Tedesco
  • Maria L. Fioravanti
  • Wenxiang Li
Fish Parasitology - Original Paper


Metacercariae of Clinostomum Leidy, 1856 are frequently encountered in freshwater fish. In 2015, a provisional species of Clinostomum in People’s Republic of China (PRC) was distinguished from C. complanatum (Rudolphi, 1819) in Europe based on divergent cytochrome c oxidase I (CO1). However, in subsequent studies in East Asia, the same divergent CO1 genotype was identified as C. complanatum. These matching sequences suggest that either the provisional East Asian species was incorrectly distinguished from C. complanatum in 2015 or that C. complanatum in East Asia was misidentified in later studies. We tested these alternatives by sequencing the mitochondrial genome of C. complanatum in Italy, which was 5.7% divergent from a previously published sequence from Clinostomum in PRC, including differences in 80 of 3390 (2.4%) translated amino acids. Partial CO1 sequences of specimens from PRC and those from Italy, Romania, and Turkey also each formed reciprocally monophyletic clades. Partial CO1 from the East Asian clade varied by mean 3.6% (range 2.4–4.8%) from C. complanatum from Italy, Romania, and Turkey; mean intra-clade CO1 variation was 0.3% (range 0–1.9%). Metacercariae from Europe and East Asia display significant morphometric variation, and data from the literature suggest morphological differences in the genital complex of adults. Although sequences of nuclear rDNA did not differ between isolates from the west and East Asia, taken together, these results lead us to describe a new species of Clinostomum.


Yellow grub Halzoun Helminth Fish parasite Molecular prospecting DNA barcode Species identification 


Funding information

This work was supported by grants from the Puerto Rico Science, Technology and Research Trust (2016-00080) (SL), the National Science Foundation (1845021) (SL), and the Joint Research Project of the Slovak Academy of Sciences and Taiwan Ministry of Science and Technology (SAS-MOST JRP 2016/7, MOST 106-2923-B-038-001-MY3) (DB).

Compliance with ethical standards

All applicable international, national, and institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed (MNSDG000000034589 issued by Rezervaţia Biosferei Delta Dunării in Tulcea, Romania).

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

436_2019_6536_MOESM1_ESM.xlsx (13 kb)
ESM 1 Measurements of metacercariae of Clinostomum (in μm) from the present and other studies, given as range (mean ± standard deviation, n measured). (XLSX 13 kb)
436_2019_6536_MOESM2_ESM.fasta (20 kb)
ESM 2 Alignment of partial sequences of cytochrome c oxidase I used for phylogenetic analysis (see Fig. 3). (FASTA 20 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sean A. Locke
    • 1
    Email author
  • Monica Caffara
    • 2
  • Daniel Barčák
    • 3
  • Pasaikou Sonko
    • 4
    • 5
  • Perla Tedesco
    • 2
  • Maria L. Fioravanti
    • 2
  • Wenxiang Li
    • 6
  1. 1.Department of BiologyUniversity of Puerto Rico at MayagüezMayagüezPuerto Rico
  2. 2.Department of Veterinary Medical SciencesAlma Mater Studiorum University of BolognaOzzano EmiliaItaly
  3. 3.Institute of Parasitology, SASKošiceSlovak Republic
  4. 4.Department of International PhD Program in Medicine, College of MedicineTaipei Medical UniversityTaipeiTaiwan
  5. 5.Department of Molecular Parasitology and Tropical Diseases, School of Medicine, College of MedicineTaipei Medical UniversityTaipeiTaiwan
  6. 6.Key Laboratory of Aquaculture Disease Control, Ministry of Agriculture, and State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of HydrobiologyChinese Academy of SciencesWuhanPeople’s Republic of China

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