Prevalence and multilocus genotypes of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in alpacas (Vicugna pacos) in Shanxi Province, northern China
Enterocytozoon bieneusi is a single-celled obligate pathogen that seriously threatens animal and public health. However, information on the prevalence and genotypes of E. bieneusi in alpacas in China is limited. In the present study, 366 fresh fecal samples from alpacas in Shanxi Province, northern China, were collected to detect E. bieneusi by nested PCR amplification of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA). The overall prevalence of E. bieneusi in alpacas was 4.4% (16/366), including 3.9% (12/305) in Yangqu County and 6.6% (4/61) in Dai county, respectively. Four known genotypes were identified, namely ALP1, ALP3, P, and SH11, all of which belong to the zoonotic group 1 by phylogenetic analysis. Moreover, ITS-positive samples were further characterized by PCR amplification of other four targets, including three microsatellites (MS1, MS3, and MS7) and one minisatellite (MS4). Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) showed that 5, 2, 3, and 3 types were identified at MS1, MS3, MS7, and MS4 loci, respectively, representing eight multilocus genotypes (MLGs). These findings contribute to the improved understanding of the prevalence and genotypes of E. bieneusi in alpacas in China and have important implications for controlling E. bieneusi infections in animals and humans.
KeywordsEnterocytozoon bieneusi Alpaca (Vicugna pacos) Prevalence Multilocus sequence Genotypes Shanxi Province
Project support was provided, in part, by the Science and Technology Key Research and Development Project of Shanxi Province (201703D221024-2), the Program for the Science and Technology Innovation of Shanxi Agricultural University (2017YJ10), and the Agricultural Science and Technology Innovation Program (ASTIP) (grant no. CAAS-ASTIP-2016-LVRI-03).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
- Deng L, Li W, Zhong Z, Gong C, Cao X, Song Y, Wang W, Huang X, Liu X, Hu Y, Fu H, He M, Wang Y, Zhang Y, Wu K, Peng G (2017) Multi-locus genotypes of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in captive Asiatic black bears in southwestern China: high genetic diversity, broad host range, and zoonotic potential. PLoS One 12:e0171772CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Gómez-Puerta LA (2013) Caracterización molecular de genotipos de Enterocytozoon bieneusi y ensamblajes de Giardia deuodenalis aislados de heces de crías de alpaca (Vicugna pacos). MSc thesis. Universidad Nacionl Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, p 120Google Scholar
- Li W, Deng L, Yu X, Zhong Z, Wang Q, Liu X, Niu L, Xie N, Deng J, Lei S, Wang L, Gong C, Zhou Z, Hu Y, Fu H, Xu H, Geng Y, Peng G (2016) Multilocus genotypes and broad host-range of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in captive wildlife at zoological gardens in China. Parasit Vectors 9:395CrossRefGoogle Scholar