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Evaluation of targeted copper sulfate (CuSO4) application for controlling swimmer’s itch at a freshwater recreation site in Michigan

  • Kelsey L. Froelich
  • Ronald L. Reimink
  • Sydney P. Rudko
  • Aaron P. VanKempen
  • Patrick C. HaningtonEmail author
Treatment and Prophylaxis - Short Communication
  • 21 Downloads

Abstract

Swimmer’s itch has historically been controlled by applying copper sulfate (CuSO4) to lakes as a way to eliminate snails that serve as the intermediate hosts for swimmer’s itch-causing parasites. CuSO4 is still sometimes applied specifically to areas of lakes where swimmer’s itch severity is high. It is unclear whether targeted application of chemical molluscicides like CuSO4 is effective for controlling swimmer’s itch. Previous research has found that the larval stage of the parasites responsible for swimmer’s itch are released from infected snails and are concentrated by onshore and alongshore winds, and thus, may not be affected by such focused applications. In this study, we evaluated the impact of targeted CuSO4 application to a specific recreational swimming area in a lake in Michigan. We measured the effect on snail populations, as well as on the presence/abundance of swimmer’s itch-causing parasites using qPCR. Ultimately, while CuSO4 was confirmed to significantly reduce populations of snails within the treatment area, it was found to have no significant impact on swimmer’s itch-causing parasites in the water, likely due to the free-swimming larval stages (cercariae) moving into the treatment area from surrounding regions.

Keywords

Swimmer’s itch Digenetic trematode Schistosome qPCR Water Copper sulfate Chemical treatment 

Notes

Funding

This work was supported by the Michigan Swimmer’s Itch Partnership (RLR), Alberta Environment – Energy and Environment Solutions #2332 (PCH) and the Natural Sciences and Engineering Council of Canada #2018-05209 and 2018-522661 (PCH).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Saint Joseph High SchoolSaint JosephUSA
  2. 2.Office of Campus MinistriesHope CollegeHollandUSA
  3. 3.Freshwater SolutionsHudsonvilleUSA
  4. 4.School of Public HealthUniversity of AlbertaEdmontonCanada
  5. 5.Piedmont UniversityDemorestUSA

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