In vitro anthelmintic effects of Bridelia ferruginea, Combretum glutinosum, and Mitragyna inermis leaf extracts on Haemonchus contortus, an abomasal nematode of small ruminants
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Gastrointestinal nematodes remain a major constraint on the health, welfare, and production of small ruminants. This study was conducted to evaluate three plant extracts (from Bridelia ferruginea, Combretum glutinosum, and Mitragyna inermis) as effective remedies against gastrointestinal parasites of small ruminants. Phytochemical screening was conducted on the plant leaves, and the potential anthelmintic properties of these plants were tested in vitro on Haemonchus contortus using the egg hatch, larval migration, and adult worm motility assays. The phytochemical screening of the leaves revealed the presence of several bioactive components in all the plants. The number of eggs that hatched was reduced in a concentration-dependent manner (p < 0.01) upon treatment with the methanol extract of B. ferruginea and the acetone extracts of C. glutinosum and M. inermis. The inhibitory effect of the acetone extract of B. ferruginea and the methanol extracts of C. glutinosum and M. inermis was not concentration-dependent (p > 0.05). There was a significant difference (p < 0.05) in the reduction in larval migration between the lowest concentrations (75 to 150 μg/mL) and the highest concentrations (300 to 1200 μg/mL) of plant extracts. The ability of plant extracts to affect the mobility of the adult worms was not concentration-dependent (p > 0.05); however, it was dependent on the time of incubation (p < 0.01). At the highest concentration (2400 μg/mL), all adult worms were motionless after 24 h of exposure, while at the lowest concentration (< 150 μg/mL), this occurred after 48 h of exposure. M. inermis and C. glutinosum extracts were more effective than B. ferruginea extracts (p < 0.05). Overall, these results suggest that these plants used by small-scale farmers possess antiparasitic properties useful for helminthiasis control. However, the effects of the plants remain to be confirmed via in vivo assays and toxicity tests in further studies.
KeywordsBridelia ferruginea Combretum glutinosum Haemonchus contortus Mitragyna inermis Anthelmintic activity
This work was supported mainly by the INTERNATIONAL FOUNDATION FOR SCIENCE (IFS) and the Competitive Research Fund of the University of Abomey-Calavi. This study would not have been completed without the traditional healers and small-scale farmers of Benin and the staff of the Laboratory of Ethnopharmacology and Animal Health, FSA, UAC.
Compliance with ethical standards
Ethics approval and consent to participate
The present study was approved and conducted in accordance with the guidelines of the Ethical Committee of University of Abomey – Calavi (EC approval 2015/1134), and after receiving approval, all experiments were conducted using the guidelines of the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP). In addition, it is important to note that consent was obtained from all participants, especially from the animal owners of South and North Benin, who usually use the three plants to treat their animals against parasites of the ruminant gastrointestinal tract.
Consent to publish
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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