Parasitology Research

, Volume 118, Issue 1, pp 143–157 | Cite as

New host records of three Kudoa spp. (K. yasunagai, K. thalassomi, and K. igami) with notable variation in the number of shell valves and polar capsules in spores

  • Haruya Sakai
  • Takao Kawai
  • Jinyong Zhang
  • Hiroshi SatoEmail author
Fish Parasitology - Original Paper


To date, 26 Kudoa spp. (Myxozoa: Myxosporea: Multivalvulida) have been recorded in edible marine fishes in Japan. In the future, it is likely that even more marine fish multivalvulid myxosporeans will be characterized morphologically and genetically, which will aid the precise understanding of their biodiversity and biology. We examined 60 individuals of six fish species collected from the Philippine Sea off Kochi or from the border between the Philippine Sea and East China Sea around Miyako Island, Okinawa, i.e., the southern part of Japan. Newly collected parasite species included Kudoa yasunagai from the brain of Japanese meagre (Argyrosomus japonicus) and Japanese parrotfish (Calotomus japonicus), Kudoa miyakoensis n. sp. and Kudoa thalassomi from the brain and trunk muscle, respectively, of bluespine unicornfish (Naso unicornis), and Kudoa igami from the trunk muscle of Carolines parrotfish (Calotomus carolinus), African coris (Coris gaimard), and Pastel ringwrasse (Hologymnosus doliatus). With the exception of Japanese parrotfish for K. yasunagai, all these fish are new host records for each kudoid species. Notable variation in the number of shell valves (SV) and polar capsules (PC) was observed for all four kudoid species. In particular, spores with seven or eight SV/PC were prominent in K. igami isolates, despite the original Japanese parrotfish-derived description characterizing it as having spores with six, or less commonly five, SV/PC. However, molecular genetic characterization based on the ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA) and mitochondrial DNA (cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 and ribosomal RNA small and large subunits) found no significant differences in the nucleotide sequences of isolates with different phenotypical features as far as examined in the present study. A newly erected species, K. miyakoensis n. sp., was determined to be phylogenetically closest to brain-parasitizing species, such as K. chaetodoni, K. lemniscati, and K. yasunagai based on rDNA nucleotide sequences, but differed from them morphologically.


Kudoa yasunagai Kudoa miyakoensis n. sp. Kudoa thalassomi Kudoa igami Morphological variation Mitochondrial DNA 


Funding information

This study was supported in part by Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research 2015 and 2017 from The Towa Foundation for Food Science and Research (HS), Grant-in-Aid for International Collaboration Research in Asia 2016 from the Heiwa Nakajima Foundation (HS), and JSPS KAKENHI grant numbers 15K07722 and 18K05995. The collaborative research visit to Yamaguchi University in 2018 of the third author (JZ) is supported by the Chinese Academy of Science.

Supplementary material

436_2018_6144_Fig5_ESM.png (861 kb)
Supplemental Fig. 1

Fresh spores of Kudoa yasunagai from the brain of Calotomus japonicus (aj) and Argyrosomus japonicus (k, l). Spores are shown in apical (ac, gk) and lateral (df, l) views, and spores shown in (gj) are fully extended ones to clearly display the number and shape of their PC. All photographs are at the same magnification, with the scale shown on the lower furthest right photograph (l). (PNG 860 kb)

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High-resolution image (TIF 39731 kb)
436_2018_6144_Fig6_ESM.png (1.5 mb)
Supplemental Fig. 2

Fresh spores of Kudoa thalassomi from the trunk muscle of N. unicornis. Spores are shown in apical (ae) and lateral (fj) views. All photographs are at the same magnification, with the scale shown on the lower furthest right photograph (j). (PNG 1553 kb)

436_2018_6144_MOESM2_ESM.tif (46.2 mb)
High resolution image (TIF 47318 kb)
436_2018_6144_Fig7_ESM.png (1.4 mb)
Supplemental Fig. 3

Fresh spores of Kudoa igami from the trunk muscle of Calotomus carolinus (aj) and Coris gaimard (ko). Spores are shown in apical (af, ko) and lateral (gj) views, and spores shown in (ko) are fully extended ones to clearly display the number and shape of their PC. All photographs are at the same magnification, with the scale shown on the lower furthest right photograph (o). (PNG 1425 kb)

436_2018_6144_MOESM3_ESM.tif (64.4 mb)
High-resolution image (TIF 65937 kb)
436_2018_6144_Fig8_ESM.png (360 kb)
Supplemental Fig. 4

Unrooted ML phylogenetic tree based on the 18S rDNA sequence of Kudoa spp. with more than four SV and PC in a spore. The species name of the isolates collected in the present study (with gray background) is followed by the name of the fish host, country or sea of collection, and DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank accession number. Abbreviations of country or sea names: AU, Australia; ECS, East China Sea; JP, Japan; KR, Korea; and PHS, Philippine Sea. (PNG 359 kb)

436_2018_6144_MOESM4_ESM.tif (31 mb)
High-resolution image (TIF 31793 kb)
436_2018_6144_Fig9_ESM.png (589 kb)
Supplemental Fig. 5

Unrooted ML phylogenetic tree based on the 28S rDNA sequence. See Supplemental Fig. 4’s legend for details. (PNG 588 kb)

436_2018_6144_MOESM5_ESM.tif (52.7 mb)
High-resolution image (TIF 53985 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Haruya Sakai
    • 1
  • Takao Kawai
    • 2
  • Jinyong Zhang
    • 1
    • 3
  • Hiroshi Sato
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Laboratory of Parasitology, Joint Faculty of Veterinary MedicineYamaguchi UniversityYamaguchiJapan
  2. 2.Osaka Institute of Public HealthOsakaJapan
  3. 3.Fish Diseases Laboratory, State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of HydrobiologyChinese Academy of SciencesWuhanChina

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