Advertisement

Parasitology Research

, Volume 117, Issue 11, pp 3399–3405 | Cite as

Biomarkers and renal arterial resistive index in dogs naturally infected with Leishmania infantum

  • Fabiano de Oliveira Frazilio
  • Fernando de Almeida Borges
  • Alda Izabel de Souza
  • Mariana Isa Poci Palumbo
  • Carlos Alberto do Nascimento Ramos
  • Diogo Helney Freire
  • André Luiz Baptista Galvão
  • Mariana Green de Freitas
  • Fernanda Battistotti Barbosa
Original Paper

Abstract

Canine visceral leishmaniasis frequently causes glomerulonephritis and tubulointerstitial nephritis, nephropathies for which diagnosis has been limited by the low sensitivity of traditional tests. The aim of this study was to evaluate serum cystatin C and urinary gamma-glutamyltransferase (uGGT) levels and the urinary GGT/urinary creatinine ratio (uGGT/uCR) and to measure the renal arterial resistive index (RARI) in dogs with leishmaniasis with varying degrees of renal injury based on the urine protein: creatinine ratio (UP/C) and serum creatinine (SCr) level. We tested 59 untreated adult dogs of both sexes and undefined breeds naturally infected with Leishmania infantum. The dogs were grouped into four groups based on UP/C and SCr level: group 1 (n = 15), dogs with SCr levels < 1.4 mg/dL and UP/C < 0.5; group 2 (n = 13), dogs with SCr levels < 1.4 mg/dL and UP/C of 0.5–1.0; group 3 (n = 16), dogs with SCr levels < 1.4 and UP/C > 1.0; and group 4 (n = 15), dogs with SCr levels > 1.4. A fifth group of healthy dogs (n = 10) was the control. uGGT concentrations and uGGT/uCR were higher in dogs with proteinuria and SCr < 1.4 mg/dL, whereas the serum cystatin C concentrations and RARI were higher only in dogs with SCr levels > 1.4. In conclusion, uGGT and uGGT/uCR may be useful tools for early detection and assessment of renal lesions associated with leishmaniasis; however, cystatin C is useful for monitoring the progression of kidney disease when measured sequentially.

Keywords

Cystatin C Enzymuria Leishmaniasis Resistance index Proteinuria 

Notes

Funding information

This work received financial support from FUNDECT—Fundação de Apoio ao Desenvolvimento do Ensino, Ciência e Tecnologia do Estado de Mato Grosso do Sul.

References

  1. Abranches P, Silva-Perera MCD, Conceição-Silva FM, Santos-Gomes GM, Janz JG (1991) Canine leishmaniasis: pathological and ecological factors influencing transmission of infection. The J of Parasitol 77:557–561CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Almy FS, Christopher MM, King DP, Brown SA (2002) Evaluation of cystatin C as an endogenous marker of glomerular filtration rate in dogs. J Vet Intern Med 16:45–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Antognoni MT, Siepi D, Porciello F, Fruganti G (2005) Use of serum cystatin C determination as a marker of renal function in the dog. Vet Res Commun 29:265–267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Antognoni MT, Siepi D, Porciello F, Rueca F, Fruganti G (2007) Serum cystatin-C evaluation in dogs affected by different diseases associated or not with renal insufficiency. Vet Res Commun 31:269–271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ayres M, Ayres JM, Ayres DL, Santos AS (2005) Programa BioEstat 5.0. Aplicações Estatísticas nas Áreas das Ciências Biológicas e Biomédicas. Sociedade Civil Mamirauá, BelémGoogle Scholar
  6. Baneth G, Koutinas AF, Solano-Gallego L, Bourdeau P, Ferrer L (2008) Canine leishmaniosis–new concepts and insights on an expanding zoonosis. Part one. Trends Parasitol 24:324–330CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bigé N, Lévy PP, Callard P, Faintuch JM, Chigot V, Jousselin V, Boffa JJ (2012) Renal arterial resistive index is associated with severe histological changes and poor renal outcome during chronic kidney disease. BMC Nephrol 13(1):1–4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Braun JP, Perxachs APD, De La Farge F (2002) Plasma cystatin C in the dog: reference values and variations with renal failure. Comp Clin Pathol 11(1):44–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chew DJ, Dibartola SP, Schenck PA (2012) Urologia e nefrologia do cão e do gato. Elsevier, Rio de JaneiroGoogle Scholar
  10. De Schepper J, De Cock I, Capiau E (1989) Urinary gamma-glutamyl transferase and the degree of renal dysfunction in 75 bitches with pyometra. Res Vet Sci 46:396–400CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Elshafie AI, Elghazali G, Rönnelid J, Venge P (2006) Cystatin c as a marker of immune complex–associated renal impairment in a Sudanese population with visceral leishmaniasis. Am J Trop Med Hyg 75:864–868CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. García-Martínez JD, Martinez-Subiela S, Tvarijonaviciute A, Caldin M, Ceron JJ (2015) Urinary ferritin and cystatin C concentrations at different stages of kidney disease in leishmaniotic dogs. Res Vet Sci 99:204–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Gossett KA, Turnwald GH, Kearney MT, Greco DS, Cleghorn B (1987) Evaluation of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase-to-creatinine ratio from spot samples of urine supernatant, as an indicator of urinary enzyme excretion in dogs. Am J Vet Res 48(3):455–457PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Grauer GF (2005) Early detection of renal damage and disease in dogs and cats. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 35:581–596CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Greco DS, Turnwald GH, Adams R (1994) Urinary gama-glutamil-transpeptidase activity in dogs with gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity. Am J Vet Res 11:332–335Google Scholar
  16. Ibba F, Mangiagalli G, Paltrinieri S (2016) Urinary gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) as a marker of tubular proteinuria in dogs with canine leishmaniasis, using sodium dodecylsulphate (SDS) electrophoresis as a reference method. Vet J 210:89–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Ikee R, Kobayashi S, Hemmi N et al (2005) Correlation between the resistive index by Doppler ultrasound and kidney function and histology. Am J Kidney Dis 4:603–609CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Martinelli R, Lorenço R, Rocha H (1986) Absence of clinical abnormalities suggesting renal involvement during the long-term course of visceral Leishmaniasis. Ver Soc Bras Med Trop 19:209–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Merien F, Amouriaux P, Perolat P, Baranton G, Saint Girons I (1992) Polymerase chain reaction for detection of Leptospira spp. in clinical samples. J Clin Microbiol 30(9):2219–2224PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. Morrow KL, Salman MD, Lappin MR, Wrigley R (1996) Comparison of the resistive index to clinical parameters in dogs with renal disease. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 37:193–199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Novellas R, Espada Y, De Gopegui RR (2007) Doppler ultrasonographic estimation of renal and ocular resistive and pulsatility indices in normal dogs and cats. Vet Radiol Ultrasoun 48:69–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Palacio J, Liste F, Gascon M (1997) Enzymuria as an índex of renal damage in canine leishmaniasis. Vet Rec 140(18):477–480CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Platt JF, Ellis JH, Rubin JM (1990) Intrarenal arterial Doppler sonography in patients with nonobstructive renal disease: correlation of resistive index with biopsy findings. Am J Roentgenol 154(6):1223–1227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Randers E, Erlandsen EJ (1999) Serum cystatin C as an endogenous marker of the renal function–a review. Clin Chem Lab Med 37:389–395CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Rivers BJ, Walter PA, O’brien TD, King VL, Polzin DJ (1995) Evaluation of urine gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase-to-creatinine ratio as a diagnostic tool in an experimental model of aminoglycoside-induced acute renal failure in the dog. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 32:323–336CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Rivers BJ, Walter PA, Polzin DJ, King VL (1997) Duplex Doppler estimation of Intrarenal Pourcelot resistive index in dogs and cats with renal disease. J Vet Intern Med 11:250–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Wehner A, Hartmann K, Ischberger J (2008) Utility of serum cystatin c as a clinical measure of renal function in dogs. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 44:131–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Wen B, Rikihisa Y, Mott JM, Greene R, Kim HY, Zhi N, Bartsch R (1997) Comparison of nested PCR with immunofluorescent-antibody assay for detection of Ehrlichia canis infection in dogs treated with doxycycline. J Clin Microbiol Infect 35(7):1852–1855Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fabiano de Oliveira Frazilio
    • 1
  • Fernando de Almeida Borges
    • 1
  • Alda Izabel de Souza
    • 1
  • Mariana Isa Poci Palumbo
    • 1
  • Carlos Alberto do Nascimento Ramos
    • 1
  • Diogo Helney Freire
    • 1
  • André Luiz Baptista Galvão
    • 2
  • Mariana Green de Freitas
    • 1
  • Fernanda Battistotti Barbosa
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and ZootechnicsFederal University of Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS)Campo GrandeBrazil
  2. 2.Centro Universitário de Rio Preto (UNIRP)São José do Rio PretoBrazil

Personalised recommendations