Bulk tank milk prevalence and production losses, spatial analysis, and predictive risk mapping of Ostertagia ostertagi infections in Mexican cattle herds
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This study investigated the prevalence, production losses, spatial clustering, and predictive risk mapping in different climate zones in five states of Mexico. The bulk tank milk samples obtained between January and April 2015 were analyzed for antibodies against Ostertagia ostertagi using the Svanovir ELISA. A total of 1204 farm owners or managers answered the questionnaire. The overall herd prevalence and mean optical density ratio (ODR) of parasite were 61.96% and 0.55, respectively. Overall, the production loss was approximately 0.542 kg of milk per parasited cow per day (mean ODR = 0.92, 142 farms, 11.79%). The spatial disease cluster analysis using SatScan software indicated that two high-risk clusters were observed. In the multivariable analysis, three models were tested for potential association with the ELISA results supported by climatic, environmental, and management factors. The final logistic regression model based on both climatic/environmental and management variables included the factors rainfall, elevation, land surface temperature (LST) day, and parasite control program that were significantly associated with an increased risk of infection. Geostatistical kriging was applied to generate a risk map for the presence of parasite in dairy cattle herds in Mexico. The results indicate that climatic and meteorological factors had a higher potential impact on the spatial distribution of O. ostertagi than the management factors.
KeywordsOstertagia ostertagi Prevalence Bulk tank milk Production losses Risk factors Geographical information system GIS Risk mapping Cows Mexico Epidemiology
The authors are grateful to Jesús Valle Juárez for providing excellent technical assistance.
Conceived and designed the experiments: AV and CP. Performed the experiments: AV, CP, AC, and AR. Analyzed the data: AV, AC, and AR. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: AV, JO, and AR. Wrote the paper: AV, CP, and JO. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
Compliance with ethical standards
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
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