Parasitology Research

, Volume 117, Issue 4, pp 1013–1024 | Cite as

Diversity of Mammomonogamus (Nematoda: Syngamidae) in large African herbivores

  • Barbora Červená
  • Kristýna Hrazdilová
  • Peter Vallo
  • Barbora Pafčo
  • Tereza Fenyková
  • Klára Judita Petrželková
  • Angelique Todd
  • Nikki Tagg
  • Nadege Wangue
  • Estevam G. Lux Hoppe
  • Marcela Figuerêdo Duarte Moraes
  • Ivan Moura Lapera
  • Andressa de Souza Pollo
  • Ana Cláudia Alexandre de Albuquerque
  • David Modrý
Original Paper


Four species of Mammomonogamus are known from large African herbivores. A recent study demonstrated that a single Mammomonogamus species was shared by both western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) and African forest elephants (Loxodonta cyclotis) in Central African Republic, suggesting lower species diversity than previously described in literature. We examined more than 500 fecal samples collected from sympatric African forest elephants, western lowland gorillas, and African forest buffaloes (Syncerus caffer nanus) at four study sites across Central Africa and examined them by coproscopic methods to detect Mammomonogamus eggs, which were found at three of the study sites. Subsequently, sequences of 18S rDNA, 28S rDNA, and cox1 amplified from individual eggs were analyzed. Phylogenetic analyses of both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA revealed two clades: one formed by sequences originating from Gabonese buffaloes and the other comprising gorillas and elephants. The gorilla–elephant clade was further differentiated depending on the locality. We show the existence of at least two distinct species of Mammomonogamus, M. loxodontis in elephants and gorillas and M. nasicola in buffaloes. The available information on Mammomonogamus in African herbivores is reviewed.


Mammomonogamus Gorilla African forest elephant African forest buffalo Parasite sharing Host specificity 



We would like to thank the government of the Central African Republic, the World Wildlife Fund, the Ministère de l’Education Nationale, de l’Alphabétisation, de l’Enseignement Supérieur, et de la Recherche for granting permission and providing permits to conduct our research in the Central African Republic and the Primate Habituation Programme for logistical support in the field. We are thankful to the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique et Technologique (CENAREST) and the Agence National des Parcs Nationaux (ANPN) for research authorization in Gabon. We thank SFM Safari Gabon for hosting our research and seeing the value of health monitoring as part of the development of ape tourism programs, especially to Matthew H. Shirley and Emilie Fairet as well as our field assistants Pierre Bukosso and Kharl Remanda for their significant support in the field. We express our thanks to the Ministère des Fôrets et de la Faune and Ministère de la Recherche Scientifique et de l’Innovation in Cameroon for permitting our research. We thank the Projet Grands Singes, Centre for Research and Conservation, Royal Zoological Society of Antwerp, and WWF Kudu-Zumbo Programme for providing their material and logistical support in the field. We would also like to thank all trackers and research assistants from all study sites, especially to Arlette Tchankugni Nguemfo and Charmance Irene Nkombou for helping with sample collection. We thank Jana Bulantová and her team from the Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Science, Charles University, Prague, for providing us with specimens of Syngamus sp. collected from a crow.

Funding information

This work was supported by the Czech Science Foundation (15-05180S) and derived from the Laboratory for Infectious Diseases Common to Humans and (non-Human) Primates from Czech Republic (HPI-Lab) and was co-financed by the European Social Fund and the state budget of the Czech Republic (project OPVK CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0300). Further support came from “CEITEC”—Central European Institute of Technology (CZ.1.05/1.100/02.0068), the European Regional Development Fund, and The Institute of Vertebrate Biology, Czech Academy of Sciences (RVO: 68081766). The work was supported by project LO1218 with financial support from the Ministry of Education, Youth, and Sports of the Czech Republic under the NPU I program. We acknowledge a grant for the development of research organization (RVO: RO0516).

Supplementary material

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Figure S4

A phylogenetic tree resulting from Bayesian inference of 375 bp of cox1 sequence of 101 taxa comprising Mammomonogamus spp. and other available strongylids (GIF 8 kb)

436_2018_5777_MOESM4_ESM.tif (5.7 mb)
High Resolution Image (TIFF 5875 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Barbora Červená
    • 1
  • Kristýna Hrazdilová
    • 2
    • 3
  • Peter Vallo
    • 4
    • 5
  • Barbora Pafčo
    • 1
  • Tereza Fenyková
    • 1
  • Klára Judita Petrželková
    • 4
    • 6
    • 7
  • Angelique Todd
    • 8
  • Nikki Tagg
    • 9
  • Nadege Wangue
    • 10
  • Estevam G. Lux Hoppe
    • 11
  • Marcela Figuerêdo Duarte Moraes
    • 11
  • Ivan Moura Lapera
    • 11
  • Andressa de Souza Pollo
    • 11
  • Ana Cláudia Alexandre de Albuquerque
    • 12
  • David Modrý
    • 1
    • 2
    • 6
  1. 1.Department of Pathology and Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary MedicineUniversity of Veterinary and Pharmaceutical Sciences BrnoBrnoCzech Republic
  2. 2.Central European Institute for Technology (CEITEC)University of Veterinary and Pharmaceutical SciencesBrnoCzech Republic
  3. 3.Department of VirologyVeterinary Research InstituteBrnoCzech Republic
  4. 4.Institute of Vertebrate BiologyCzech Academy of SciencesBrnoCzech Republic
  5. 5.Evolutionary Ecology and Conservation GenomicsUniversity of UlmUlmGermany
  6. 6.Institute of ParasitologyBiology Centre of the Czech Academy of SciencesČeské BudějoviceCzech Republic
  7. 7.Liberec ZooLiberecCzech Republic
  8. 8.WWF, Dzanga-Sangha Protected AreasBanguiCentral African Republic
  9. 9.Projet Grands Singes, Centre for Research and ConservationRoyal Zoological Society of AntwerpAntwerpenBelgium
  10. 10.WWF Kudu-Zumbo ProgrammeCampoCameroon
  11. 11.Universidade Estadual Paulista—UNESP, Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias, Câmpus de JaboticabalJaboticabalBrazil
  12. 12.Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science SchoolUNESP—São Paulo State UniversityBotucatuBrazil

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