Parasitology Research

, Volume 117, Issue 3, pp 893–904 | Cite as

Morphological and molecular genetic characterization of Kudoa konishiae n. sp. (Myxosporea: Multivalvulida) in the muscle of Japanese Spanish mackerel (Scomberomorus niphonius)

  • Haruya Sakai
  • Eigo Kato
  • Seiho Sakaguchi
  • Aogu Setsuda
  • Hiroshi SatoEmail author
Original Paper


The Japanese Spanish mackerel (Scomberomorus niphonius; Perciformes: Scombridae) is widely distributed in the continental shelves of the northwestern Pacific Ocean around Japan, Sea of Japan, and East China Sea. In the present study, small, spindle-shaped myxosporean plasmodia (0.15–0.53 mm by 0.04–0.13 mm) were frequently encountered in the myofiber of trunk muscles of two Japanese Spanish mackerels; one fished in the Sea of Japan off western Japan and the other in the northwestern Pacific Ocean off southern Japan in the autumn of 2016. Isolated myxospores of Kudoa konishiae n. sp. (Myxosporea: Multivalvulida) from these two fish were stellate with six equal shell valves and polar capsules, 8.1–9.7 μm in width, 7.1–8.8 μm in thickness, and 7.1–8.8 μm in length. The polar capsules were teardrop-shaped, 2.7–4.7 μm by 1.2–2.5 μm. The lateral view of spores revealed a drawstring-pouch shape. The nucleotide sequences of the 18S and 28S ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA) were distinct from any recorded species. Phylogenetic trees demonstrated a close relationship of the present new species with Kudoa spp. with stellate spores with five or more shell valves/polar capsules, recorded in scombrid fishes. To clarify the phylogenetic relationships between three closely related species, i.e., Kudoa konishiae n. sp., Kudoa hexapunctata, and Kudoa neothunni, three mitochondrial DNA genes (cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (cox-1) and the small and large subunits of the ribosomal RNA gene (rns-rnl)) of two isolates of the new species, six isolates of K. hexapunctata, and 13 isolates of K. neothunni were sequenced. The interspecific and intraspecific variations of the newly obtained cox-1 and rns-rnl nucleotide sequences of K. hexapunctata, K. neothunni, and K. konishiae n. sp. were clarified for the first time.


Kudoa konishiae n. sp. Myxosporea Multivalvulida Scomberomorus niphonius Japan Morphology rDNA Mitochondrial gene Kudoa hexapunctata Kudoa neothunni 


Funding information

This study was supported in part by Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research 2017 from The Towa Foundation for Food Science and Research (HS), and JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number 15K07722.


  1. Adlard RD, Bryant MS, Whipps CM, Kent ML (2005) Multivalvulid myxozoans from eastern Australia: three new species of Kudoa from scombrid and labrid fishes of the Great Barrier Reef, Queensland, Australia. J Parasitol 91(5):1138–1142. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Alama-Bermejo G, Jirků M, Kodádková A, Pecková H, Fiala I, Holzer AS (2016) Species complexes and phylogenetic lineages of Hoferellus (Myxozoa, Cnidaria) including revision of the genus: a problematic case for taxonomy. Parasites Vectors 9(1):13. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. Azevedo C, Rocha S, Motos P, Motos E, Oliveira E, Al-Quraishy S, Csal G (2014) Morphological and phlogeny of Henneguya jocu n. sp. (Myxosporea: Myxobolidae), infecting the gills of the marine fish Lutjanus jocu. Eur J Protistol 50:185–193Google Scholar
  4. Bartošová-Sojková P, Hrabcová M, Pecková H, Patra S, Kodádková A, Jurajda P, Tyml T, Holzer AS (2014) Hidden diversity and evolutionary trends in malacosporean parasites (Cnidaria: Myxozoa) identified using molecular phylogenetics. Int J Parasitol 44(8):565–577. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Burger MAA, Adlard RD (2010a) Four new species of Kudoa Meglitsch, 1947 (Myxosporea: Multivalvulida) from Australia with recommendations for species descriptions in the Kudoidae. Parasitology 137(05):793–814. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Burger MAA, Adlard RD (2010b) Phenotypic variation in a significant spore character in Kudoa (Myxosporea: Multivalvulida) species infecting brain tissue. Parasitology 137(12):1759–1772. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Burger MAA, Adlard RD (2011) Low host specificity in the Kudoidae (Myxosporea: Multivalvulida) including seventeen new host records for Kudoa thalassomi. Folia Parasitol 58(1):1–16. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Burger MAA, Cribb TH, Adlard RD (2007) Patterns of relatedness in the Kudoidae with descriptions of Kudoa chaetodoni n. sp. and K. lethrini n. sp. (Myxosporea: Multivalvulida). Parasitology 134(05):669–681. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Burger MA, Brames AC, Adlard RD (2008) Wildlife as reservoirs for parasites infecting commercial species: host specificity and redescription of Kudoa amamiensis from teleost fish in Australia. J Fish Dis 31(11):835–844. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Diamant A, Ucko M, Paperna I, Colorni A, Lipshitz A (2005) Kudoa iwatai (Myxosporea: Multivalvulida) in wild and cultured fish in the red sea: redescription and molecular phylogeny. J Parasitol 91:1175–1189Google Scholar
  11. Eiras JC, Lima JTAX, Cruz CF, Saraiva A (2014) A note on the infection of Scomberomorus brasiliensis (Osteichthyes, Scombridae) by Kudoa sp. (Myxozoa: Multivalvulida). Braz J Biol 73 (suppl) 74(3 suppl 1):S164–S166. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Eiras JC, Saravia A, Cruz C (2014) Synopsis of the species of Kudoa Meglitsch, 1947 (Myxozoa: Myxosporea: Multivalvulida). Syst Parasitol 87: 153–180Google Scholar
  13. Fiala I, Hlavničková M, Kodádková A, Freeman MA, Bartošová-Sojková P, Atkinson SD (2015) Evolutionary origin of Ceratonova shasta and phylogeny of the marine myxosporean lineage. Mol Phylogenet Evol 86:75–89CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Grossel GW, Dykova I, Handlinger J, Munday BL (2003) Pentacapsula neurophila sp. n. (Multivalvulida) from the central nervous system of striped trumpeter, Latris lineata (Forster). J Fish Dis 26(6):315–320. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Grossel GW, Handlinger J, Battaglene S, Munday BL (2005) Diagnostic polymerase chain reaction assay to detect Kudoa neurophila (Myxozoa: Multivalvulida) in a marine finfish hatchery. Dis Aquat Org 64(2):141–149. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Gunter NL, Cribb TH, Whipps CM, Adlard RD (2006) Characterization of Kudoa monodactyli n. sp. (Myxosporea: Multivalvulida) from the muscle of Monodactylus argenteus (Teleostei: Monodactylidae) from Moreton Bay, Queensland, Australia. J Eukaryot Microbiol 53(5):374–378. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Heiniger H, Cribb TH, Adlard RD (2013) Intra-specific variation of Kudoa spp. (Myxosporea: Multivalvulida) from apogonid fishes (Perciformes), including the description of two new species, K. cheilodipteri n. sp. and K. cookii n. sp., from Australian waters. Syst Parasitol 84(3):193–215. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Iversen ES, Van Meter NN (1967) A new myxosporidian (Sporozoa) infecting the Spanish mackerel. Bull Mar Sci 17:268–273Google Scholar
  19. Kasai A, Li Y-C, Setsuda A, Mafie E, Sato H (2015) Genetic characterization of Kudoa iwatai and Kudoa trachuri in commercial marine fish (Platycephalus sp. and Trachurus japonicus) for human consumption. Jpn J Vet Parasitol 14:22–30Google Scholar
  20. Kasai A, Li Y-C, Mafie E, Sato H (2016) New host records of monacanthid fish for three Kudoa spp. (K. septempunctata, K. thyrsites, and K. shiomitsui) prevalent in the olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus), with the description of K. parathyrsites n. sp. from a black scraper (Thamnaconus modestus). Parasitol Res 115(7):2741–2755. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Kasai A, Setsuda A, Sato H (2017) Morphological and genetic characterization of Kudoa whippsi (Myxosporea: Multivalvulida) from Cheilodactylus zonatus in the western Pacific Ocean off Japan, and two new Kudoa spp. (K. akihitoi n. sp. and K. empressmichikoae n. sp.) from Acanthogobius hasta in the Sea of Ariake, Japan. Parasitol Res 116:647–659Google Scholar
  22. Kasai A, Tsuduki H, Jimenez LA, Li Y-C, Tanaka S, Sato H (2017) Incidence of three Kudoa spp., K. neothunni, K. hexapunctata, and K. thunni (Myxosporea: Multivalvulida), in Thunnus tunas distributed in the western Pacific Ocean. Parasitol Res 116(4):1137–1150. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Kato E, Kasai A, Tomochi H, Li Y-C, Sato H (2017) Four Myxobolus spp. (Myxosporea: Bivalvulida) from the gill lamellae of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and Japanese silver crucian carp (Carassius langsdorfii) in the western part of Japan, with the description of three new species (M. tanakai n. sp., M. paratoyamai n. sp., and M. ginbuna n. sp.) Parasitol Res 116:2427–2441CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Li Y-C, Sato H, Tanaka S, Ohnishi T, Kamata Y, Sugita-Konishi Y (2013) Characterization of the ribosomal RNA gene of Kudoa neothunni (Myxosporea: Multivalvulida) in tunas (Thunnus spp.) and Kudoa scomberi n. sp. in a chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus). Parasitol Res 112(5):1991–2003. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Lom J, Arthur JR (1989) A guideline for the preparation of species descriptions in Myxosporea. J Fish Dis 12(2):151–156. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Lom J, Dyková I (2006) Myxozoan genera: definition and notes on taxonomy, life-cycle terminology and pathogenic species. Folia Parasitol 53(1):1–36. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Matsukane Y, Sato H, Tanaka S, Kamata Y, Sugita-Konishi Y (2010) Kudoa septempunctata n. sp. (Myxosporea: Multivalvulida) from an aquacultured olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) imported from Korea. Parasitol Res 107(4):865–872. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Meng F, Yokoyama H, Shirakashi S, Grabner D, Ogawa K, Ishimaru K, Sawada Y, Murata O (2011) Kudoa prunusi n. sp. (Myxozoa: Multivalvulida) from the brain of Pacific bluefin tuna Thunnus orientalis (Temminck & Schlegel, 1844) cultured in Japan. Parasitol Int 60(1):90–96. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Miller TL, Adlard RD (2012) Brain infecting kudoids of Australia’s coral reefs, including a description of Kudoa lemniscati n. sp. (Myxosporea: Kudoidae) from Lutjanus lemniscatus (Perciformes: Lutjanidae) off Ningaloo Reef, western Australia. Parasitol Int 61(2):333–342. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Miller TL, Adlard RD (2013) Unicapsula species (Myxosporea: Trilosporidae) of Australian marine fishes, including the description of Unicapsula andersenae n. sp. in five teleost families off Queensland, Australia. Parasitol Res 112(8):2945–2957. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Moran JDW, Whitaker DJ, Kent ML (1999) A review of the myxosporean genus Kudoa Meglitsch, 1947, and its impact on the international aquaculture industry and commercial fisheries. Aquaculture 172(1-2):163–196. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Sato H, Kasai A (2016) Kudoa species (Myxozoa: Myxosporea: Multivalvulida) recorded in Japan or its surrounding natural waters (1930-2016). Jpn J Vet Parasitol 15: 111–138 (in Japanese with English summary)Google Scholar
  33. Sekiya M, Setsuda A, Sato H, Song K, Han J-K, Kim G-J, Yeo IK (2016) Enteromyxum leei (Myxosporea: Bibalvulida) as the cause of myxosporean emaciation disease of farmed olive flounders (Paralichthys olivaceus) and a turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) on Jeju Island, Korea. Parasitol Res 115(11):4229–4237. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Shirakashi S, Yamane K, Ishitani H, Yanagida T, Yokoyama H (2014) First report of Kudoa species in the somatic muscle of the Japanese parrotfish Calotomus japonicus (Scaridae) and a description of Kudoa igami n. sp. (Myxozoa: Multivalvulida). Parasitol Res 113:2515–2524CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Shui B-N, Han Z-Q, Gao T-X, Miao Z-Q, Yanagimoto T (2009) Mitochondrial DNA variation in the East China Sea and Yellow Sea populations of Japanese Spanish mackerel Scomberomorus niphonius. Fish Sci 75(3):593–600. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Takeuchi F, Sekizuka T, Ogasawara Y, Yokoyama H, KamikawaR IY, Nozaki T, Sugita-Konishi Y, Ohnishi T, Kuroda M (2015) The mitochondrial genomes of a myxozoan genus Kudoa are extremely divergent in Metazoa. PLoS One 10(7):e0132030. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  37. Takeuchi F, Ogasawara Y, Kato K, Sekizuka T, Nozaki T, Sugita-Konishi Y, Ohnishi T, Kuroda M (2016) Genetic variants of Kudoa septempunctata (Myxozoa: Multivalvulida), a flounder parasite causing foodborne disease. J Fish Dis 39(6):667–672. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Thompson JD, Higgins DG, Gibson TJ (1994) CLUSTAL W: improving the sensitivity of progressive multiple sequence alignment through sequence weighting, position-specific gap penalties and weight matrix choice. Nucleic Acids Res 22(22):4673–4680. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  39. Tomochi H, Li YC, Tran BT, Yanagida T, Sato H (2014) Three Unicapsula species (Myxosporea: Trilosporidae) of Asian marine fishes, including the description of Unicapsula setoensis n. sp. in the yellowfin goby (Acanthogobius flavimanus) from the Inland Sea of Japan. Parasitol Res 113(10):3807–3816. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Untergasser A, Cutcutache I, Koressaar T, Ye J, Faircloth BC, Remm M, Rozen SG (2012) Primer3—new capabilities and interfaces. Nucleic Acids Res 40(15):e115. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  41. Whipps CM, Kent ML (2006) Phylogeography of the cosmopolitan marine parasite Kudoa thyrsites (Myxozoa: Myxosporea). J Eukaryot Microbiol 53(5):364–373. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Whipps CM, Adlard RD, Bryant MS, Kent ML (2003a) Two unusual myxozoans, Kudoa quadricornis n. sp. (Multivalvulida) from the muscle of goldspotted trevally (Carangoides fulvoguttatus) and Kudoa permulticapsula n. sp. (Myltivalvulida) from the muscle of Spanish mackerel (Scomberomorus commerson) from the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. J Parasitol 89(1):168–173.Google Scholar
  43. Whipps CM, Adlard RD, Bryant MS, Lester RJG, Findlay V, Kent ML (2003b) First report of three Kudoa species from eastern Australia: Kudoa thyrsites from mahi mahi (Coryphaena hippurus), Kudoa amamiensis and Kudoa minithyrsites n. sp. from sweeper (Pempheris ypsilychnus). J Eukaryot Microbiol 50(3):215–219. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Whipps CM, Grossel G, Adlard RD, Yokoyama H, Bryant MS, Munday BL, Kent ML (2004) Phylogeny of the Multivalvulidae (Myxozoa: Myxosporea) based on comparative ribosomal DNA sequence analysis. J Parasitol 90(3):618–622. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Yokoyama H, Itoh N (2005) Two multivalvulid myxozoans causing postmortem myoliquefaction: Kudoa megacapsula n. sp. from red barracuda (Sphyraena pinguis) and Kudoa thyrsites from splendid alfonso (Beryx splendens). J Parasitol 91(5):1132–1137. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Yokoyama H, Whipps CM, Kent M, Mizuno K, Kawakami H (2004) Kudoa thyrsites from Japanese flounder and Kudoa lateolabracis n. sp. from Chinese sea bass: causative myxozoans of post-mortem myoliquefaction. Fish Parasitol 39:79–85Google Scholar
  47. Yokoyama H, Suzuki J, Shirakashi S (2014) Kudoa hexapunctata n. sp. (Myxozoa: Multivalvulida) from the somatic muscle of Pacific bluefin tuna Thunnus orientalis and re-description of K. neothunni in yellowfin tuna T. albacares. Parasitol Int 63(4):571–579. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Haruya Sakai
    • 1
  • Eigo Kato
    • 1
  • Seiho Sakaguchi
    • 1
  • Aogu Setsuda
    • 1
    • 2
  • Hiroshi Sato
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Laboratory of Parasitology, Joint Faculty of Veterinary MedicineYamaguchi UniversityYamaguchiJapan
  2. 2.United Graduate School of Veterinary ScienceYamaguchi UniversityYamaguchiJapan

Personalised recommendations