Rare case of acute toxoplasmosis in a domestic rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in Brazil associated with the type BrIII Brazilian clonal lineage of Toxoplasma gondii
- 301 Downloads
Toxoplasmosis is a widely distributed disease that infects birds and mammals, including humans. Acute clinical course of toxoplasmosis is considered to be rare among domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). The aim of this study was to present the first report of fatal acute disease caused by Toxoplasma gondii type BrIII genotype, a typical Brazilian clonal lineage, in a domestic rabbit. T. gondii was identified in histological sections of spleen and liver tissue, and these tissues were also immunohistochemically positive for T. gondii. After the histopathological and immunohistochemical confirmation of T. gondii, the genotype of this pathogen was determined via PCR-RFLP with 11 markers (SAG1, SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, Apico, and CS3) and via microsatellite (MS) analysis with 15 markers (TUB2, W35, TgMA, B18, B17, M33, IV.1, X1.1, M48, M102, N60, N82, AA, N61, and N83). This study shows that type BrIII genotype, circulating in Brazil in different hosts, can cause acute disease in a naturally infected animal host. The described case also involves the first reported occurrence of the 291 allele for the typing marker TUB2 in a type BrIII strain, emphasizing the genetic diversity of T. gondii in Brazil.
KeywordsToxoplasma gondii Rabbit breeding PCR-RFLP Microsatellite markers Genetic diversity
SMG received a fellowship from the Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq). This study was also supported by a departmental grant from CAPES/PROEX (1841/2016).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- Carneiro AC, Andrade GM, Costa JG, Pinheiro BV, Vasconcelos-Santos DV, Ferreira AM, Su C, Januário JN, Vitor RW (2013) Genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii revealed highly diverse genotypes for isolates from newborns with congenital toxoplasmosis in southeastern Brazil. J Clin Microbiol 51(3):901–907. https://doi.org/10.1128/JCM.02502-12 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Dubey JP (2010) Toxoplasmosis of animals and humans. CRC Press, FloridaGoogle Scholar
- Homan WL, Vercammen M, de Braekeleer J, Verschueren H (2000) Identification of a 200- to 300-fold repetitive 529 bp DNA fragment in Toxoplasma gondii, and its use for diagnostic and quantitative PCR. Int J Parasitol 30(1):69–75. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0020-7519(99)00170-8 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- IBGE Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (2011) Produção da Pecuária Municipal [Municipal Livestock Production]. Rio de Janeiro, 39:1–63. ftp://ftp.ibge.gov.br/Producao_Pecuaria/Producao_da_Pecuaria_Municipal/2011/ppm2011.pdf. Accessed 30 July 2017
- Splendore A (1908) Novel protozoan parasite of rabbit. Rev Soc Sci São Paulo 3:109–112Google Scholar
- Uhlíková M, Hübner J (1973) Congenital transmission of toxoplasmosis in domestic rabbits. Folia Parasitol (Praha) 20:285–291Google Scholar
- Wiktor TJ (1950) Sur une épidémie des lapins et des pigeons à Stanleyville (Congo Belge). Ann Soc Belg Med Trop 30(1):97–108Google Scholar