Phylogenetic relationships between Dicrocoelium chinensis populations in Japan and China based on mitochondrial nad1 gene sequences
- 209 Downloads
We carried out phylogenetic analyses of the relationships between Dicrocoelium chinensis populations in Japan and China using molecular markers. One hundred nine lancet flukes collected from Japan and China were identified as D. chinensis based on their testis orientation and the nucleotide sequences of their ribosomal ITS2. These flukes were analyzed phylogenetically using mitochondrial nad1 gene sequences. An analysis of molecular variance found that the percentage of variation between the countries was extremely high, indicating that the D. chinensis populations in Japan and China are differentiated genetically. D. chinensis mainly parasitizes wild sika deer, which is thought to originate in northeast Asia and to have colonized into Japan from the Eurasia continent in the Pleistocene glaciations. In addition, phylogenic analyses indicated that Japanese sika deer is genetically differentiated from Chinese population; therefore, we hypothesize that D. chinensis might have been introduced into Japan along with the migration of infected wild ruminants in the Pleistocene, and then the population became differentiated from the Chinese population. This study provides the nucleotide sequences of the nad1 gene of D. chinensis in Japan for the first time and shows that these sequences are useful for elucidating the phylogenetic relationships of the Dicrocoelium species prevalent in Asia.
KeywordsDicrocoelium chinensis China Japan nad1 Phylogenetic analysis ITS2
We would like to thank Editage (www.editage.jp) for English language editing.
Compliance with ethical standards
The authors declare that the experiments comply with the current laws of the country. The sika deer were obtained from regular hunting program of the particular hunting area in consideration of the wildlife protection and hunting management law of Japan. The Japanese serrow died accidentally in Japan. The flukes from the bile ducts of sheep and yak were collected in slaughterhouses in China. No animal was killed with the aim of providing samples for this study.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- Gubanov NM (1964) Helminth fauna of mammals of economic importance in Yakutia. Izd. Nauka, Moskva (in Russian) Google Scholar
- Hayashi K, Ohtori M, Tang WQ, Ohari Y, Mohanta UK, Itagaki T (2016) Molecular phylogenetic relationship of Dicrocoelium dendriticum from Japan and China based on nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial nad1. Jpn J Vet Parasitol 15:12–18Google Scholar
- Lapage G (1962) Mönnig’s veterinary helminthology and entomology, 5th edn. Bailliere Tindall and Cox, LondonGoogle Scholar
- Nagata J, Masuda R, Tamate HB, Hamasaki Si, Ochiai K, Asada M, Tatsuzawa S, Suda K, Tado H, Yoshida MC (1999) Two genetically distinct lineages of the sika deer, Cervus nippon, in Japanese islands: comparison of mitochondrial D-Loop region sequences. Mol Phylogenet Evol 13(3):511–519CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Oshmarin PG (1963) Parasitic worms of mammals and birds in the Primorje region. Izd. Akad, Nauk SSSR, Moskva (in Russian) Google Scholar
- Otranto D, Rehbein S, Weigl S, Cantacessi C, Parisi A, Lia RP, Olson PD (2007) Morphological and molecular differentiation between Dicrocoelium dendriticum (Rudolphi, 1819) and Dicrocoelium chinensis (Sudarikov and Ryjikov, 1951) Tang and Tang, 1978 (Platyhelminthes: Digenea). Acta Trop 104:91–98CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Poglayen G, Roda R, Tona A, Mulciri A, Venturi G (1996) Endoparasites of the muflon (Ovis ammon musimon) from the Belluno province. Italy Ric Biol Selvaggina 24:73–77 (in Italian) Google Scholar
- Schuster R (1998) The genus Dicrocoelium—a historical review of its description and ontogeny. In: Köhler W, Kiefer J (eds) Seuchen gestern und heute, vol. 3, Sonderschriften der Akademie für gemeinnütziges, Wissen (1998), pp 225–242 (in German) Google Scholar
- Soulsby EJL (1968) Helminths, arthropods and protozoa of domesticated animals, 6th edn. Bailliere, LondonGoogle Scholar
- Sudarikov VE, Ryjikov KM (1951) On the helminth fauna of ungulates of the Baikal region. Trudy Gel’mintol. Lab. Akad. Nauk SSSR 5:53–58 (in Russian) Google Scholar
- Yamaguti S (1933) Studies on the helminth fauna of Japan. Part1. Trematodes of birds, reptiles and mammals. Jpn J Zool 5:1–134Google Scholar
- Yamaguti S (1971) Synopsis of digenetic trematodes of vertebrates. Keigaku publishing Ltd, TokyoGoogle Scholar