Parasitology Research

, Volume 116, Issue 6, pp 1603–1615 | Cite as

Nanomedicine advances in toxoplasmosis: diagnostic, treatment, and vaccine applications

  • João Paulo Assolini
  • Virginia Márcia Concato
  • Manoela Daiele Gonçalves
  • Amanda Cristina Machado Carloto
  • Ivete Conchon-Costa
  • Wander Rogério Pavanelli
  • Francine Nesello Melanda
  • Idessania Nazareth Costa


Toxoplasmosis is an infectious disease caused by the intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii that affects about one third of the world’s population. The diagnosis of this disease is carried out by parasite isolation and host antibodies detection. However, the diagnosis presents problems in regard to test sensitivity and specificity. Currently, the most effective T. gondii treatment is a combination of pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine, although both drugs are toxic to the host. In addition to the problems that compromise the effective diagnosis and treatment of toxoplasmosis, there are no reports or indications of any vaccine capable of fully protecting against this infection. Nanomaterials, smaller than 1000 nm, are currently being investigated as an alternative tool in the management of T. gondii infection. This article reviews how recent nanotechnology advances indicate the utility of nanomaterials in toxoplasmosis diagnosis, treatment, and vaccine development.


Nanotechnology Nanoparticles Nanomedicine Toxoplasma gondii Infection 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • João Paulo Assolini
    • 1
  • Virginia Márcia Concato
    • 1
  • Manoela Daiele Gonçalves
    • 1
  • Amanda Cristina Machado Carloto
    • 1
  • Ivete Conchon-Costa
    • 1
  • Wander Rogério Pavanelli
    • 1
  • Francine Nesello Melanda
    • 1
  • Idessania Nazareth Costa
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Departamento de Ciências Patológicas, Laboratório de ParasitologiaUniversidade Estadual de LondrinaLondrinaBrazil
  2. 2.Departamento de Ciências Patológicas — Laboratório de ParasitologiaUniversidade Estadual de Londrina—UELLondrinaBrazil

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