Parasitology Research

, Volume 116, Issue 4, pp 1175–1188 | Cite as

Larvicidal activity of Blumea eriantha essential oil and its components against six mosquito species, including Zika virus vectors: the promising potential of (4E,6Z)-allo-ocimene, carvotanacetone and dodecyl acetate

  • Giovanni BenelliEmail author
  • Marimuthu GovindarajanEmail author
  • Mohan Rajeswary
  • Sengamalai Senthilmurugan
  • Periasamy Vijayan
  • Naiyf S. Alharbi
  • Shine Kadaikunnan
  • Jamal M. Khaled
Original Paper


The effective and environmentally sustainable control of mosquitoes is a challenge of essential importance. This is due to the fact that some invasive mosquitoes, with special reference to the Aedes genus, are particularly difficult to control, due to their high ecological plasticity. Moreover, the indiscriminate overuse of synthetic insecticides resulted in undesirable effects on human health and non-target organisms, as well as resistance development in targeted vectors. Here, the leaf essential oil (EO) extracted from a scarcely studied plant of ethno-medicinal interest, Blumea eriantha (Asteraceae), was tested on the larvae of six mosquitoes, including Zika virus vectors. The B. eriantha EO was analyzed by GC and GC-MS. The B. eriantha EO showed high toxicity against 3rd instar larvae of six important mosquito species: Anopheles stephensi (LC50=41.61 μg/ml), Aedes aegypti (LC50=44.82 μg/ml), Culex quinquefasciatus (LC50 =48.92 μg/ml), Anopheles subpictus (LC50=51.21 μg/ml), Ae. albopictus (LC50=56.33 μg/ml) and Culex tritaeniorhynchus (LC50=61.33 μg/ml). The major components found in B. eriantha EO were (4E,6Z)-allo-ocimene (12.8%), carvotanacetone (10.6%), and dodecyl acetate (8.9%). Interestingly, two of the main EO components, (4E,6Z)-allo-ocimene and carvotanacetone, achieved LC50 lower than 10 μg/ml on all tested mosquito species. The acute toxicity of B. eriantha EO and its major constituents on four aquatic predators of mosquito larval instars was limited, with LC50 ranging from 519 to 11.431 μg/ml. Overall, the larvicidal activity of (4E,6Z)-allo-ocimene and carvotanacetone far exceed most of the LC50 calculated in current literature on mosquito botanical larvicides, allowing us to propose both of them as potentially alternatives for developing eco-friendly mosquito control tools.


biosafety biopesticide essential oil larvicidal activity GC-MS non-target toxicity WHO 



We are grateful to H. Mehlhorn and the anonymous reviewers for their useful suggestions on an earlier version of our study. The authors extend their sincere appreciations to the Deanship of Scientific Research at King Saud University for funding this Prolific Research Group (PRG-1437-36). The authors would like to thank Professor and Head, Department of Zoology, Annamalai University, for the laboratory facilities provided.


  1. Adams RP (2007) 4th Ed. Carol Stream, Illinois: Allured Publishing Corporation; Identification of essential oil components by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopyGoogle Scholar
  2. Alkofahi A, Rupprecht JK, Anderson JE, Mclaughlin JL, Mikolajczak KL, Scott BA (1989) Search for new pesticides from higher plants. In: Arnason JT, Philogene BJR, Morand P (eds) Insecticides of Plant Origin. American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, pp 25–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. AlShebly MM, AlQahtani FS, Govindarajan M, Gopinath K, Vijayan P, Benelli G (2017) Toxicity of ar-curcumene and epi-β-bisabolol from Hedychium larsenii (Zingiberaceae) malaria, chikungunya and St. Louis encephalitis mosquito vectors. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 137:149–157CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Amer A, Mehlhorn H (2006a) Repellency effect of forty-one essential oils against Aedes, Anopheles and Culex mosquitoes. Parasitol Res 99:478–490CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Amer A, Mehlhorn H (2006b) The sensilla of Aedes and Anopheles mosquitoes and their importance in repellency. Parasitol Res 99:491–499CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Amer A, Mehlhorn H (2006c) Larvicidal effects of various essential oils against Aedes, Anopheles, and Culex larvae (Diptera, Culicidae). Parasitol Res 99:466–472CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Amer A, Mehlhorn H (2006d) Persistency of larvicidal effects of plant oil extracts under different storage conditions. Parasitol Res 99:473–477CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Baranitharan M, Dhansekaran S, Murugan K, Kovendan K, Gokulakrishnan J (2016) Chemical composition and laboratory investigation of Melissa officinalis essential oil against human malarial vector mosquito, Anopheles stephensi L. (Diptera: Culicidae). J Coast Life Med 4(12):969–973CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Baranitharan M, Dhanasekaran S, Kovendan K, Murugan K, Gokulakrishnan J, Benelli G (2017) Coleus aromaticus leaf extract fractions: a source of novel ovicides, larvicides and repellents against Anopheles, Aedes and Culex mosquito vectors? Process Saf Environ Prot 106:23–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Becker N (2008) Influence of climate change on mosquito development and mosquito-borne diseases in Europe. Parasitol Res 103(Suppl 1):19–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Becker N, Geier M, Balczun C, Bradersen U, Huber K, Kiel E, Krueger A, Luehken R, Orendt C, Plenge-Boenig A, Rose A, Schaub GA, Tannich E (2013) Repeated introduction of Aedes albopictus into Germany, July to. October 2012. Parasitol Res 112:1787–1790CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Benedict MQ, Levine RS, Hawley WA, Lounibos LP (2007) Spread of the tiger: global risk of invasion by the mosquito Aedes albopictus. Vector-Borne Zoonotic Dis 7:76–85CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. Benelli G (2015a) Research in mosquito control: current challenges for a brighter future. Parasitol Res 114:2801–2805CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Benelli G (2015b) Plant-borne ovicides in the fight against mosquito vectors of medical and veterinary importance: a systematic review. Parasitol Res 114:3201–3212CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Benelli G (2016a) Plant-mediated biosynthesis of nanoparticles as an emerging tool against mosquitoes of medical and veterinary importance: a review. Parasitol Res 115:23–34CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Benelli G (2016b) Green synthesized nanoparticles in the fight against mosquito-borne diseases and cancer – a brief review. Enzym Microb Technol 95:58–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Benelli G (2017) Commentary: Data analysis in bionanoscience – issues to watch for. J Clust Sci. doi: 10.1007/s10876-016-1143-3 Google Scholar
  18. Benelli G, Govindarajan M (2017) Green-synthesized mosquito oviposition attractants and ovicides: towards a nanoparticle-based "lure and kill" approach? J Clust Sci. doi: 10.1007/s10876-016-1088-6 Google Scholar
  19. Benelli G, Mehlhorn H (2016) Declining malaria, rising dengue and Zika virus: insights for mosquito vector control. Parasitol Res 115:1747–1754CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Benelli G, Lo Iacono A, Canale A, Mehlhorn H (2016) Mosquito vectors and the spread of cancer: an overlooked connection? Parasitol Res 115:2131–2137CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Benelli G, Pavela R, Maggi F, Petrelli R, Nicoletti M (2017a) Commentary: Making green pesticides greener? The potential of plant products for nanosynthesis and pest control. J Clust Sci. doi: 10.1007/s10876-016-1131-7 Google Scholar
  22. Benelli G, Pavela R, Iannarelli R, Petrelli R, Cappellacci L, Cianfaglione K, Afshar FH, Nicoletti M, Canale A, Maggi F (2017b) Synergized mixtures of Apiaceae essential oils and related plant-borne compounds: larvicidal effectiveness on the filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus Say. Ind Crop Prod 96:186–195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Benelli G, Rajeswary M, Govindarajan M (2017c) Towards green oviposition deterrents? Effectiveness of Syzygium lanceolatum (Myrtaceae) essential oil against six mosquito vectors and impact on four aquatic biological control agents. Environ Sci Poll Res. doi: 10.1007/s11356-016-8146-3 Google Scholar
  24. Benelli G, Pavela R, Canale A, Cianfaglione K, Ciaschetti G, Conti F, Nicoletti M, Senthil-Nathan S, Mehlhorn H, Maggi F (2017d) Acute larvicidal toxicity of five essential oils (Pinus nigra, Hyssopus officinalis, Satureja montana, Aloysia citrodora and Pelargonium graveolens) against the filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus: synergistic and antagonistic effects. Parasitol Int. doi: 10.1016/j.parint.2017.01.012
  25. Bhuiyan MNI, Chowdhury JU, Begum J (2009) Chemical components in volatile oil from Blumea balsamifera(L.) DC. Bangladesh J Botany 38:107–109Google Scholar
  26. Carolina A, Maman M (2016) Larvicidal activity of essential oils from the leaves and fruits of nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt) against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) Turkish. J Agric Food Sci Technol 4(7):552–556Google Scholar
  27. Cheng SS, Chua MT, Chang EH, Huang CG, Chen WJ, Chang ST (2009) Variations in insecticidal activity and chemical composition of leaf essential oils from Cryptomeria japonica at different ages. Biores Technol 100:465–470CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Deo PG, Hasan SB, Majumdar SK (1988) Toxicity and suitability of some insecticides for household use. Int Pest Control 30:118–129Google Scholar
  29. Dinesh D, Murugan K, Madhiyazhagan P, Panneerselvam C, Nicoletti M, Jiang W, Benelli G, Chandramohan B, Suresh U (2015) Mosquitocidal and antibacterial activity of green-synthesized silver nanoparticles from Aloe vera extracts: towards an effective tool against the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi? Parasitol Res 114:1519–1529CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Dung NX, Loi DT, Hung DT, Leclercq PA (1991) Chemical composition of the oil of Blumea lanceolaria (Roxb.) Druce from Vietnam. J Essent Oil Res 3:285–286CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. El Ouali LA, El-Akhal F, Maniar S, Ez Zoubi Y, Taghzouti K (2016) Chemical Constituents and larvicidal activity of Essential Oil of Lavandula Stoechas (Lamiaceae) from Morocco against the malaria vector Anopheles Labranchiae (Diptera: Culicidae). J Pharmacogn Phytochem Res 8(3):505–511Google Scholar
  32. El-Akhal F, El Ouali LA, Ez Zoubi Y, Greche H, Guemmouh R (2014) Chemical composition and larvicidal activity of essential oil of Origanum majorana (Lamiaceae) cultivated in Morocco against Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae). Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 4(9):746–750CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Elango G, Rahuman AA, Bagavan A, Kamaraj C, Zahir AA, Venkatesan C (2009) Laboratory study on larvicidal activity of indigenous plant extracts against Anopheles subpictus and Culex tritaeniorhynchus. Parasitol Res 104:1381–1388CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Finney DJ (1971) Probit analysis. Cambridge University Press, London, pp 68–72Google Scholar
  35. Govindarajan M (2010) Chemical composition and larvicidal activity of leaf essential oil from Clausena anisata (Willd.) Hook. f. ex Benth (Rutaceae) against three mosquito species. Asian Pac J Trop Med 3:874–877CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Govindarajan M, Benelli G (2016a) Artemisia absinthium-borne compounds as novel larvicides: effectiveness against six mosquito vectors and acute toxicity on non-target aquatic organisms. Parasitol Res 115(12):4649–4661CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Govindarajan M, Benelli G (2016b) Eco-friendly larvicides from Indian plants: effectiveness of lavandulyl acetate and bicyclogermacrene on malaria, dengue and Japanese encephalitis mosquito vectors. Ecotox Environ Saf 133:395–402CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Govindarajan M, Benelli G (2016c) α-humulene and β-elemene from Syzygium zeylanicum (Myrtaceae) essential oil: highly effective and eco-friendly larvicides against Anopheles subpictus, Aedes albopictus and Culex tritaeniorhynchus (Diptera: Culicidae). Parasitol Res 115:2771–2778CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Govindarajan M, Benelli G (2016d) Facile biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Barleria cristata: mosquitocidal potential and biotoxicity on three non-target aquatic organisms. Parasitol Res 115:925–935Google Scholar
  40. Govindarajan M, Sivakumar R, Rajeswari M, Yogalakshmi K (2013a) Chemical composition and larvicidal activity of essential oil from Ocimum basilicum (L.) against Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Aedes albopictus and Anopheles subpictus (Diptera: Culicidae). Exp Parasitol 34:7–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Govindarajan M, Sivakumar R, Rajeswary M, Veerakumar K (2013b) Mosquito larvicidal activity of thymol from essential oil of Coleus aromaticus Benth. against Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Aedes albopictus and Anopheles subpictus (Diptera: Culicidae). Parasitol Res 112:3713–3721CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Govindarajan M, Rajeswary M, Hoti SL, Bhattacharyya A, Benelli G (2016a) Eugenol, α-pinene and β-caryophyllene from Plectranthus barbatus essential oil as eco-friendly larvicides against malaria, dengue and Japanese encephalitis mosquito vectors. Parasitol Res 115:807–815Google Scholar
  43. Govindarajan M, Rajeswary M, Arivoli S, Samuel T, Benelli G (2016b) Larvicidal and repellent potential of Zingiber nimmonii (J. Graham) Dalzell (Zingiberaceae) essential oil: an eco-friendly tool against malaria, dengue and lymphatic filariasis mosquito vectors? Parasitol Res 115:1807–1816Google Scholar
  44. Govindarajan M, Rajeswary M, Benelli G (2016c) Chemical composition, toxicity and effects on non-target organisms of Pinus kesiya essential oil: an eco-friendly larvicide against mosquito vectors. Ecotox Environ Saf 129:85–90Google Scholar
  45. Govindarajan M, Shine K, Naiyf S, Alharbi, Benelli G (2016d) Acute toxicity and repellent activity of the Origanum scabrum Boiss. & Heldr. (Lamiaceae) essential oil against four mosquito vectors of public health importance and its biosafety on non-target aquatic organisms. Environ Sci Pollut Res 23:23228–23238Google Scholar
  46. Govindarajan M, Rajeswary M, Benelli G (2016e) δ-Cadinene, calarene and δ-4-carene from Kadsura heteroclita essential oil as novel larvicides against malaria, dengue and filariasis mosquitoes. Comb Chem High Throughput Screen 19:565–571Google Scholar
  47. Hemingway J, Ranson H (2000) Insecticide resistance in insect vectors of human disease. Annu Rev Entomol 45:371–391CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Jahan K, Sukalyan Kumar K, Abdul Bake MD (2014) Evaluation of antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of the methanolic and petroleum ether extract of Blumea lacera Burm.f in Bangladesh. J Pharmacogn Phytochem 2(6):104–108Google Scholar
  49. Jayaraman M, Senthilkumar A, Adaikala Raj G, Venkatesalu V (2015) Isolation of mosquito larvicidal molecule from the leaves of Clausena anisata. J Exp Sci 6:12–16Google Scholar
  50. Khair A, Ibrahim M, Ahsan Q, Homa Z, Kuddus MR, Rashid RB, Rashid MA (2014) Pharmacological activities of Blumea lacera (Burm. f) DC: a medicinal plant of Bangladesh. Br J Pharm Res 4:1677–1687Google Scholar
  51. Khare CP (2007) Indian medicinal plants—an illustrated dictionary. Springer Science Business Media, LLC. (eds.) 233 Spring Street, New York, NY 10013, USAGoogle Scholar
  52. Kumar S, Mishra M, Wahab N, Warikoo R (2014) Larvicidal, repellent, and irritant potential of the seed-derived essential oil of Apium graveolens against dengue vector, Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae). Front Public Health 18:147Google Scholar
  53. Laakso I, Seppanen-Laakso T, Hiltunen R, Ekundayo O (1989) Composition of the essential oil of Blumea lacera DC. (Asteraceae) leaves from Nigeria. Flav Frag J 4:73–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Liang Z, Ying-Juan T, Li Y, Jian-Gou J (2011) Chemical composition and antimicrobial activities of essential oil of Blumea megacephala. EXCLI J 10:62–68Google Scholar
  55. Macêdo ME, Rotraut Consoli AGB, Telma Grandi SM, Anjos AMG, Oliveira AB, Mendes NM, Queiróz RO, Zani CL (1997) Screening of Asteraceae (Compositae) plant extracts for larvicidal activity against Aedes fluviatilis (Diptera: Culicidae). Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro 92(4):565–570CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Mehlhorn H (ed) (2015) Encyclopedia of parasitology, 4th edn. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  57. Mehta SC, Vardhan H, Saxena SP (1986) Some pharmacological actions of the essential oil of Blumea membranacea. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 30:149–154PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Murugan K, Panneerselvam C, Samidoss CM, Madhiyazhagan P, Suresh U, Roni M, Chandramohan B, Subramaniam J, Dinesh D, Rajaganesh R, Paulpandi M, Wei H, Aziz AT, Saleh Alsalhi M, Devanesan S, Nicoletti M, Pavela R, Canale A, Benelli G (2016a) In vivo and in vitro effectiveness of Azadirachta indica-synthesized silver nanocrystals against Plasmodium berghei and plasmodium falciparum, and their potential against malaria mosquitoes. Res Vet Sci 106:14–22CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Murugan K, Aruna P, Panneerselvam C, Madhiyazhagan P, Paulpandi M, Subramaniam J, Rajaganesh R, Wei H, Alsalhi MS, Devanesan S, Nicoletti M, Syuhei B, Canale A, Benelli G (2016b) Fighting arboviral diseases: low toxicity on mammalian cells, dengue growth inhibition (in vitro) and mosquitocidal activity of Centroceras clavulatum-synthesized silver nanoparticles. Parasitol Res 115:651–662CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Mwangi JW, Achola KJ, Lwande W, Hassanali A, Laurent R (1994) Constituents of the essential oil of Blumea brevipes (Oliv. and Hiern) Willd. Flav Frag J 9:233–235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Naqqash MN, Gökçe A, Bakhsh A, Salim M (2016) Insecticide resistance and its molecular basis in urban insect pests. Parasitol Res 115:1363–1373CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Norikura T, Kojima-Yuasa A, Shimizu M, Huang X, Xu S, Kametani S, Rho S, Kennedy DO, Matsui-Yuasa I (2008). Mechanism of growth inhibitory effect of Blumea balsamifera extract in Hepatocellular Carcinoma. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 72:1183–1189Google Scholar
  63. Owolabi MS, Lajideh L, Villanueva HE, Setzer WN (2010) Essential oil composition and insecticidal activity of Blumea perrottetiana growing in southwestern Nigeria. Nat Prod Comm 3:1135–1138Google Scholar
  64. Panneerselvam C, Murugan K, Roni M, Aziz AT, Suresh U, Rajaganesh R, Madhiyazhagan P, Subramaniam J, Dinesh D, Nicoletti M, Higuchi A, Alarfaj AA, Munusamy MA, Kumar S, Desneux N, Benelli G (2016) Fern-synthesized nanoparticles in the fight against malaria: LC/MS analysis of Pteridium aquilinum leaf extract and biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles with high mosquitocidal and antiplasmodial activity. Parasitol Res 115:997–1013CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Pavela R (2008) Larvicidal activities of some Euro-Asiatic plants against Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae). J Biopest 1:81–85Google Scholar
  66. Pavela R (2015) Essential oils for the development of eco-friendly mosquito larvicides: a review. Ind Crop Prod 76:174–187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Pavela R, Benelli G (2016a) Ethnobotanical knowledge on botanical repellents employed in the African region against mosquito vectors—a review. Exp Parasitol 167:103–108CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Pavela R, Benelli G (2016b) Essential oils as eco-friendly biopesticides? Challenges and constraints. Tr Plant Sci 21(12):1000–1007CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Pavela R, Govindarajan M (2016) The essential oil from Zanthoxylum monophyllum a potential mosquito larvicide with low toxicity to the non-target fish Gambusia affinis. J Pest Sci. doi: 10.1007/s10340-016-0763-6 Google Scholar
  70. Pavela R, Vrchotova N, Triska J (2009) Mosquitocidal activities of thyme oils (Thymus vulgaris L.) against Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae). Parasitol Res 105:1365–1370CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Pednekar PP, Vakil BV, Sane RT, Datar AG (2012) Antimicrobial activity of essential oil of Blumea eriantha DC against skin pathogens. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 4:296–299Google Scholar
  72. Pratheeba T, Prabhavathi O, Yuvarajan R, Murugan N, Natarajan D (2015) Identification of mosquitocidal compounds from the leaf extracts of Ocimum gratissimum (lamiaceae) against dengue and chikungunya vector Aedes aegypti (L.). Int J Entomol Res 3:67–79Google Scholar
  73. Sakee U, Maneerat S, Cushnie TP, De-Eknamkul W (2011) Antimicrobial activity of Blumea balsamifera (Lin.) DC. extracts and essential oil. Nat Prod Res 25:1849–1856CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Santi E, Simone (2014) Evaluating the toxicity of oil of lemon eucalyptus, Corymbia citriodora (Hook.), against larvae of the Asian tiger mosquito and non-target fish and larval amphibians. Ann Biologia 36:97–105Google Scholar
  75. Senthilkumar A, Kannathasan K, Venkatesalu V (2008) Chemical constituents and Larvicidal property of the essential oil of Blumea mollis (D. Don) Merr. against Culex quinquefasciatus. Parasitol Res 103:959–962CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Singh UP, Singh AK, Sarathy RP (2011) Effect of methanolic extracts of Blumea eriantha DC dc leaves on protein metabolism and marker enzymes in streptozotocin induced hyperglycemic animals. Int J of Pharm Sci 4(1):235–238Google Scholar
  77. Sivagnaname N, Kalyanasundaram M (2004) Laboratory evaluation of methanolic extract of Atlantia monophylla (Family: Rutaceae) against immature stages of mosquitoes and non-target organisms. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 99:115–118CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Subramaniam J, Murugan K, Panneerselvam C, Kovendan K, Madhiyazhagan P, Kumar PM, Dinesh D, Chandramohan B, Suresh U, Nicoletti M, Higuchi A, Hwang JS, Kumar S, Alarfaj AA, Munusamy MA, Messing RH, Benelli G (2015) Eco-friendly control of malaria and arbovirus vectors using the mosquitofish Gambusia affinis and ultra-low dosages of Mimusops elengi-synthesized silver nanoparticles: towards an integrative approach? Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 22:20067–20083CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Subramaniam J, Murugan K, Panneerselvam C, Kovendan K, Madhiyazhagan P, Dinesh D, Mahesh Kumar P, Chandramohan B, Suresh U, Rajaganesh R, Saleh Alsalhi M, Devanesan S, Nicoletti M, Canale A, Benelli G (2016) Multipurpose effectiveness of Couroupita guianensis-synthesized gold nanoparticles: high antiplasmodial potential, field efficacy against malaria vectors and synergy with Aplocheilus lineatus predators. Environ Sci Poll Res 23:7543–7558CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Veni T, Pushpanathan T, Mohanraj J (2016) Ovicidal and larvicidal efficacy of Crataeva magna (lour.) dc. (Family: Capparidaceae) against the Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus. Int J Pure Appl Zool 4:149–154Google Scholar
  81. Verdian-Rizi M (2009) Chemical composition and Larvicidal activity of the essential oil of Laurus nobilis L. from Iran. Iran J Pharm Sci 5:47–50Google Scholar
  82. Wang SY, Lai WC, Chu FH, Lin CT, Shen SY, Chang ST (2006) Essential oil from the leaves of Cryptomeria japonica acts as a silverfish (Lepisma saccharina) repellent and insecticide. J Wood Sci 52:522–526CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. World Health Organization (2005) Guidelines for laboratory and field testing of mosquito larvicides. Communicable disease control, prevention and eradication, WHO pesticide evaluation scheme. WHO, Geneva, WHO/CDS/WHOPES/GCDPP/1.3.Google Scholar
  84. Yakob L, Walker T (2016) Zika virus outbreak in the Americas: the need for novel mosquito control methods. Lancet Glob Health S2214-109X(16)00048–6Google Scholar
  85. Zhu L, Tian Y (2011) Chemical composition and larvicidal activity of Blumea densiflora essential oils against Anopheles anthropophagus: a malarial vector mosquito. Parasitol Res 109:1417–1422CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Giovanni Benelli
    • 1
    Email author
  • Marimuthu Govindarajan
    • 2
    Email author
  • Mohan Rajeswary
    • 2
  • Sengamalai Senthilmurugan
    • 2
  • Periasamy Vijayan
    • 2
  • Naiyf S. Alharbi
    • 3
  • Shine Kadaikunnan
    • 3
  • Jamal M. Khaled
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Agriculture, Food and EnvironmentUniversity of PisaPisaItaly
  2. 2.Unit of Vector Control, Phytochemistry and Nanotechnology, Department of ZoologyAnnamalai UniversityAnnamalainagarIndia
  3. 3.Department of Botany and Microbiology, College of ScienceKing Saud UniversityRiyadhSaudi Arabia

Personalised recommendations