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Parasitology Research

, Volume 116, Issue 4, pp 1175–1188 | Cite as

Larvicidal activity of Blumea eriantha essential oil and its components against six mosquito species, including Zika virus vectors: the promising potential of (4E,6Z)-allo-ocimene, carvotanacetone and dodecyl acetate

  • Giovanni Benelli
  • Marimuthu Govindarajan
  • Mohan Rajeswary
  • Sengamalai Senthilmurugan
  • Periasamy Vijayan
  • Naiyf S. Alharbi
  • Shine Kadaikunnan
  • Jamal M. Khaled
Original Paper

Abstract

The effective and environmentally sustainable control of mosquitoes is a challenge of essential importance. This is due to the fact that some invasive mosquitoes, with special reference to the Aedes genus, are particularly difficult to control, due to their high ecological plasticity. Moreover, the indiscriminate overuse of synthetic insecticides resulted in undesirable effects on human health and non-target organisms, as well as resistance development in targeted vectors. Here, the leaf essential oil (EO) extracted from a scarcely studied plant of ethno-medicinal interest, Blumea eriantha (Asteraceae), was tested on the larvae of six mosquitoes, including Zika virus vectors. The B. eriantha EO was analyzed by GC and GC-MS. The B. eriantha EO showed high toxicity against 3rd instar larvae of six important mosquito species: Anopheles stephensi (LC50=41.61 μg/ml), Aedes aegypti (LC50=44.82 μg/ml), Culex quinquefasciatus (LC50 =48.92 μg/ml), Anopheles subpictus (LC50=51.21 μg/ml), Ae. albopictus (LC50=56.33 μg/ml) and Culex tritaeniorhynchus (LC50=61.33 μg/ml). The major components found in B. eriantha EO were (4E,6Z)-allo-ocimene (12.8%), carvotanacetone (10.6%), and dodecyl acetate (8.9%). Interestingly, two of the main EO components, (4E,6Z)-allo-ocimene and carvotanacetone, achieved LC50 lower than 10 μg/ml on all tested mosquito species. The acute toxicity of B. eriantha EO and its major constituents on four aquatic predators of mosquito larval instars was limited, with LC50 ranging from 519 to 11.431 μg/ml. Overall, the larvicidal activity of (4E,6Z)-allo-ocimene and carvotanacetone far exceed most of the LC50 calculated in current literature on mosquito botanical larvicides, allowing us to propose both of them as potentially alternatives for developing eco-friendly mosquito control tools.

Keywords

biosafety biopesticide essential oil larvicidal activity GC-MS non-target toxicity WHO 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We are grateful to H. Mehlhorn and the anonymous reviewers for their useful suggestions on an earlier version of our study. The authors extend their sincere appreciations to the Deanship of Scientific Research at King Saud University for funding this Prolific Research Group (PRG-1437-36). The authors would like to thank Professor and Head, Department of Zoology, Annamalai University, for the laboratory facilities provided.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Giovanni Benelli
    • 1
  • Marimuthu Govindarajan
    • 2
  • Mohan Rajeswary
    • 2
  • Sengamalai Senthilmurugan
    • 2
  • Periasamy Vijayan
    • 2
  • Naiyf S. Alharbi
    • 3
  • Shine Kadaikunnan
    • 3
  • Jamal M. Khaled
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Agriculture, Food and EnvironmentUniversity of PisaPisaItaly
  2. 2.Unit of Vector Control, Phytochemistry and Nanotechnology, Department of ZoologyAnnamalai UniversityAnnamalainagarIndia
  3. 3.Department of Botany and Microbiology, College of ScienceKing Saud UniversityRiyadhSaudi Arabia

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