Parasitology Research

, Volume 116, Issue 3, pp 929–938 | Cite as

In vivo efficacy of a biotherapic and eugenol formulation against Rhipicephalus microplus

  • Paula Pimentel Valente
  • Gustavo Henrique Ferreira Abreu Moreira
  • Matheus Ferreira Serafini
  • Elias Jorge Facury-Filho
  • Antônio Último Carvalho
  • André Augusto Gomes Faraco
  • Rachel Oliveira Castilho
  • Múcio Flávio Barbosa RibeiroEmail author
Original Paper


The control of Rhipicephalus microplus is essential to prevent cattle discomfort and economic losses. However, increased resistance and acaricides inefficiency lead producers to adopt strategies that could result in the accumulation of chemical residues in meat and milk with possibilities of poisoning in animals and people. This scenario demonstrates the necessity of research into the identification of novel, effective and environmentally safe therapeutic options for cattle tick control. The objectives of this study were to develop and assess the efficacy of R. microplus biotherapic and of 5% eugenol for the control of R. microplus in artificially infested calves. Eighteen male 6-month-old Holstein calves were divided into three groups of six animals. In Group 1, the animals did not receive medication (control group); in Group 2, the animals received 1 mL of R. microplus biotherapic at dilution 6CH (centesimal Hahnemannian), orally administered twice daily. And in Group 3, they received a single application of eugenol 5% in the pour-on formulation. The median efficacy for biotherapy and eugenol 5% was respectively 10.13 and 13.97%; however, upon analyzing reproductive efficiency, it is noteworthy that the biotherapic had 45.86% efficiency and was superior to the action of eugenol (12.03%) after 37 days of treatment. The ultrastructural study provided information about the effects of R. microplus biotherapic on the ovaries of engorged females and showed disorganization in the deposition of the oocyte exochorion. The results suggest hatchability inhibition of larvae, interference in R. microplus reproduction and future possibilities for eco-friendly control of R. microplus with biotherapic 6CH.


Cattle tick Homeopathy Pour on Ultrastructure Eco-friendly control 



We thank Drs. Elizabeth Ribeiro and Roberta Carvalho Assunção for their assistance with the processing of transmission electron microscopy samples in the Center of Microscopy of UFMG.

We thank all persons who contributed directly or indirectly to this work.

We thank CAPES (Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior) for providing aid through a scholarship.

Compliance with ethical standards

This project was authorized by the Ethics Committee on Animal Experimentation, CETEA-UFMG number 276/10.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Paula Pimentel Valente
    • 1
  • Gustavo Henrique Ferreira Abreu Moreira
    • 2
  • Matheus Ferreira Serafini
    • 2
  • Elias Jorge Facury-Filho
    • 2
  • Antônio Último Carvalho
    • 2
  • André Augusto Gomes Faraco
    • 3
  • Rachel Oliveira Castilho
    • 3
  • Múcio Flávio Barbosa Ribeiro
    • 4
    Email author
  1. 1.Departamento de ZootecniaUniversidade Estadual de São Paulo, Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e VeterináriasJaboticabalBrazil
  2. 2.Departamento de Clínica Veterinária, Escola de VeterináriaUniversidade Federal de Minas GeraisBelo HorizonteBrazil
  3. 3.Departamento de Fitoquímica, Faculdade de FarmáciaUniversidade Federal de Minas GeraisBelo HorizonteBrazil
  4. 4.Departamento de Parasitologia, Instituto de Ciências BiológicasUniversidade Federal de Minas GeraisBelo HorizonteBrazil

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