Parasitology Research

, Volume 116, Issue 2, pp 677–684 | Cite as

Long-lasting permethrin-impregnated clothing: protective efficacy against malaria in hyperendemic foci, and laundering, wearing, and weathering effects on residual bioactivity after worst-case use in the rain forests of French Guiana.

  • Bruno Most
  • Vincent Pommier de Santi
  • Frédéric Pagès
  • Marie Mura
  • Waltraud M. Uedelhoven
  • Michael K. Faulde
Original Paper


Personal protective measures against hematophagous vectors constitute the first line of defense against arthropod-borne diseases. However, guidelines for the standardized testing and licensing of insecticide-treated clothing are still lacking. The aim of this study was to analyze the preventive effect of long-lasting polymer-coated permethrin-impregnated clothing (PTBDU) against malaria after exposure to high-level disease transmission sites as well as the corresponding loss of permethrin and bioactivity during worst-case field use. Between August 2011 and June 2012, 25 personnel wearing PTBDUs and exposed for 9.5 person-months in hyperendemic malaria foci in the rain forest of French Guiana contracted no cases of malaria, whereas 125 persons wearing untreated uniforms only, exposed for 30.5 person-months, contracted 11 cases of malaria, indicating that PTBDU use significantly (p = 0.0139) protected against malaria infection. In the field, PTBDUs were laundered between 1 and 218 times (mean 25.2 ± 44.8). After field use, the mean remaining permethrin concentration in PTBDU fabric was 732.1 ± 321.1 min varying between 130 and 1270 mg/m2 (mean 743.9 ± 304.2 mg/m2) in blouses, and between 95 and 1290 mg/m2 (mean 720.2 ± 336.9 mg/m2) in trousers. Corresponding bioactivity, measured according to internal licensing conditions as KD99 times against Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, varied between 27.5 and 142.5 min (mean 47.7 ± 22.1 min) for blouses, and between 25.0 and 360 min (mean 60.2 ± 66.1 min) for trousers. We strongly recommend the use of long-lasting permethrin-impregnated clothing for the prevention of mosquito-borne diseases, including chikungunya, dengue, and zika fevers, which are currently resurging globally.


Permethrin-impregnated clothing Malaria prevention Long-lasting activity Personal protection Laundering resistance Weathering effects 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bruno Most
    • 1
  • Vincent Pommier de Santi
    • 2
  • Frédéric Pagès
    • 2
    • 3
  • Marie Mura
    • 4
  • Waltraud M. Uedelhoven
    • 5
  • Michael K. Faulde
    • 6
    • 7
  1. 1.Director Department ABundeswehr Medical OfficeKoblenzGermany
  2. 2.French Armed Forces Center for Epidemiology and Public Health (CESPA)Camp Militaire de Sainte MartheMarseilleFrance
  3. 3.Regional Office of the French Institute for Public Health Surveillance (Cire OI, Institut de Veille Sanitaire)Saint-DenisFrance
  4. 4.Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des ArméesBrétigny sur OrgeFrance
  5. 5.Bundeswehr Research Institute for Materials, Fuels, and LubricantsErdingGermany
  6. 6.Department of Medical Entomology/ZoologyCentral Institute of the Bundeswehr Medical ServiceKoblenzGermany
  7. 7.Institute of Medical Microbiology, Immunology and ParasitologyUniversity Clinics BonnBonnGermany

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