In vivo assessment of the antimalarial and spleen-protective activities of the Saudi propolis methanolic extract
- 233 Downloads
Antimalarial drug resistance is the main therapeutic challenge to the control of the disease, making the search for new compounds as alternative treatments of central importance. Propolis has a long history of medicinal use due to its antifungal, antibacterial and antiprotozoal properties. The present study therefore aimed to evaluate the antimalarial activity of the Saudi propolis methanolic extract against Plasmodium chabaudi infection in mice. To this end, albino mice were divided into five groups: the first group was the normal control; the second, third, fourth and fifth groups were infected intraperitoneally with 106 P. chabaudi-parasitized erythrocytes. The last three groups of mice were gavaged with 100 μl of propolis extract (PE) at a dose of 25, 50 and 100 mg PE/kg, respectively, once daily for 7 days. PE significantly suppressed the parasitaemia and showed significant efficacy in ameliorating anaemic conditions in P. chabaudi-infected mice in a dose-dependent manner. Histological investigation of the spleen tissue of treated and untreated mice further supports the antimalarial potential of PE. In addition, our study proved that Saudi PE reduced oxidative damage by decreasing the malondialdehyde (MDA) and increasing the catalase (CAT) activity and the glutathione (GSH) levels. Also, Saudi PE increased the level of some pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IFN-γ, TNF-α, GM-CSF and G-CSF, with the most effective dose being 100 mg PE/kg. In conclusion, PE showed antimalarial and antioxidant activities and provided protection against spleen tissue damage in P. chabaudi-infected mice.
KeywordsPropolis Plasmodium Oxidative stress Spleen Histopathology Cytokines
This research project was supported by a grant from the “Research Center for the Female Scientific and Medical College”, Deanship of Scientific Research, King Saud University.
Compliance with ethical standards
This work was approved by the state authorities and followed the Saudi Arabian rules for animal protection.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- Aebi HU (ed) (1984) Methods in enzymatic analysis. Academic, New York, pp 276–286Google Scholar
- Bankova V, Trusheva B, Popova M (2008) New developments in propolis chemical diversity studies (since 2000). In: Oršolic N, Bašić I (eds) Scientific evidence of the use of propolis in ethnomedicineGoogle Scholar
- Jabbarzare M, Chin VK, Talib H, Yam MF, Adam SK, Hassan H, Abdul Majid R, Mat Taib CN, Mohd Moklas MA, Taufik Hidayat M, Mohd Sidek H, Basir R (2015) Interleukin-18 antagonism improved histopathological conditions of malaria infection in mice. Iran J Parasitol 10:389–401PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Kalia P, Kumar NR, Harjai K (2014) Studies on the effect of ethanolic extract of propolis in BALB/c mice. J App Nat Sci 6:638–643Google Scholar
- Lopes D, Rungsihirunrat K, Nogueira F, Seugorn A, Gil JP, Do Rosário VE, Cravo P (2002) Molecular characterisation of drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum from Thailand. Malar J 14:1–12Google Scholar
- Machado JL, Assuncao AK, da Silva MC, Dos Reis AS, Costa GC, Arruda Dde S, Rocha BA, Vaz MM, Paes AM, Guerra RN et al (2012) Brazilian green propolis: anti-inflammatory property by an immunomodulatory activity. J Evid Based Complementary Alternat Med 2012:157652Google Scholar
- Nega D, Assefa A, Mohamed H, Solomon H, Woyessa A, Assefa Y, Kebede A, Kassa M (2016) Therapeutic efficacy of Artemether-Lumefantrine (Coartem®) in treating uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria in Metehara, Eastern Ethiopia: regulatory clinical study. PLoS One 11:e0154618CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Szliszka E, Kucharska AZ, Sokol-Letowska A, Mertas A, Czuba ZP, Krol W (2013) Chemical composition and anti-inflammatory effect of ethanolic extract of Brazilian green propolis on activated J774A.1 macrophages. J Evid Based Complementary Alternat Med 2013:976415Google Scholar
- WHO (2014) World malaria report 2014. WHO Press, GenevaGoogle Scholar
- WHO (2015) WHO traditional medicine strategy: 2002–2005. WHO Press, GenevaGoogle Scholar