Morphological description and phylogeny of Ceratomyxa scorpaeni n. sp. (Myxosporea: Ceratomyxidae) infecting the gallbladder of Scorpaena porcus (L.) (Scorpaeniformes: Scorpaenidae) from the bay of Bizerte in Tunisia
- 348 Downloads
A new marine myxosporean species Ceratomyxa scorpaeni n. sp. is described using morphological characteristics and small subunit ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequence data. The parasite was found infecting the gallbladder of Scorpaena porcus Linnaeus, 1758 collected from the Bay of Bizerte. Mature plasmodia were disporous free floating in the bile. Spores were transversely elongated and crescent-shaped with unequal shell valves and measured 7.6 ± 0.2 (7.2–8.0) μm in length and 32.8 ± 0.3 (21.6–44.0) μm in thickness. Two sub-spherical polar capsules equal in size, situated at the same level and measured 3.0 ± 0.2 (3.0–3.2) μm in length and 2.4 ± 0.3 (2.3–3.3) μm in width. The infection with C. scorpaeni n. sp. was prevalent throughout the year with a maximum prevalence of infection during spring and summer. Molecular analysis of the SSU rRNA gene confirmed the parasite as a new member of the genus Ceratomyxa and showed close relationship with the species of Ceratomyxa infecting the gallbladders of Sparidae from the Mediterranean Sea. This is the first report of Ceratomyxa species from the gallbladder of S. porcus in Tunisian coastal waters.
KeywordsMyxozoa Ceratomyxa scorpaeni n. sp. Morphology SSU ribosomal DNA Scorpaena porcus Tunisia
This research was in part supported by a research scholarship provided to Ms. Myriam Garbouj from the University of Tunis El Manar. We thank Dr. Yemmen, a member of our laboratory at the Faculty of Sciences of Tunis, for his assistance on the phylogenetic analysis. The molecular part was partially supported by the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) through the COMPETE-Operational Competitiveness Programme and national funds through FCT—Foundation for Science and Technology, under the project BPEst-C/MAR/LA0015/2013 and the project DIRDAMyx, reference FCOMP-01-0124-FEDER-020726/FCT-PTDC/MAR/116838/2010, was also partially supported by the Structured Program of R&D&I INNOVMAR-Innovation and Sustainability in the Management and Exploitation of Marine Resources, reference NORTE-01-0145-FEDER-000035, namely within the Research Line INSEAFOOD Innovation and valorization of seafood products: meeting local challenges and opportunities, within the R&D Institution CIIMAR (Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research), supported by the Northern Regional Operational Programme (NORTE2020), through the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF), and the Ph.D. fellowship grant SFRH/BD/82237/2011 attributed to L.F. Rangel.
Compliance with ethical standards
All applicable international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed.
Conflict of interests
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interests.
- Alama-Bermejo G, Raga JA, Holzer AS (2011) Host parasite relationship of Ceratomyxa puntazzi n. sp. (Myxozoa: Myxosporea) and sharpsnout seabream Diplodus puntazzo (Walbaum, 1792) from the Mediterranean with first data on ceratomyxid host specificity in sparids. Vet Parasitol 182:181–192CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ali M, Abdel-Baki A, Sakran T (2006) Myxidium elmatboulii n. sp. and Ceratomyxa ghaffari n. sp. (Myxozoa: Myxosporea) Parasitic in the Gallbladder of the Red Sea Houndfish Tylosurus choram (Rüppell, 1837) (Teleostei: Belonidae) from the Red Sea, Egypt. Acta Protozool 45:97–103Google Scholar
- Barta JR, Martin DS, Liberator PA, Dshkevicz M, Anderson JW, Feighner SD, Elbrecht A, Perkins-Barrow A, Jenkins MC, Danforth HD, Ruff MD, Profous Juchelka H (1997) Phylogenetic relationships among eight Eimeria species infecting domestic fowl inferred using complete small subunit ribosomal DNA sequences. J Parasitol 83:262–271CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Canning EU, Okamura B (2004) Biodiversity and evolution of the Myxozoa. Adv Parasitol 56:44–130Google Scholar
- Cho JB, Kwon SR, Kim SK, Nam YK, Kim KH (2004) Ultrastructure and development of Ceratomyxa protopsettae Fujita, 1923 (Myxosporea) in the gallbladder of cultured olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus. Acta Protozool 43:241–250Google Scholar
- Ferri J, Petric M, Matic-skoko S, Dulcic J (2008) New host record, black scorpionfish Scorpaena porcus (Pisces, Scorpaenidae) for Nerocila orbigny and Ceratothoa parallela (Crustacea, Isopoda, Cymothoidae). Acta Adriat 49(3):255–258Google Scholar
- Fiala I, Hlavnickova M, Kodadkova A, Freeman MA, Bartošova-Sojkova P, Atkinson SD (2015) Evolutionary origin of Ceratonova shasta and phylogeny of the marine myxosporean lineage. Mol Biol Evol 86:75–89Google Scholar
- Fujita T (1923) Studies on Myxosporidia of Japan. 1. Parasites of flatfishes in Hokkaido. J Coll Agric Hokkaido Imp Univ 10:191–248Google Scholar
- Hmissi J (2014) Contribution à l’étude de la parasitofaune de trois espèces de poissons Scorpaenidés provenant de Bizerte et de Mahdia. Mémoire de Mastère, Faculté des Sciences de Tunis, pp 1–89Google Scholar
- Kalavati C, Raman AV, Vaidehi J, Bharathi VR (1997) Effects of pollution on planktonic ciliates in Visakhapatnam harbor. Indian J Mar Sci 26:68–73Google Scholar
- Katharios P, Garaffo M, Sarter K, Athanassopoulou F, Mylonas CC (2007) A case of high mortality due to heavy infestation of Ceratomyxa diplodae in sharpsnout sea bream (Diplodus puntazzo) treated with reproductive steroids. Bull Eur Ass Fish Pathol 27:43–47Google Scholar
- Lubat V, Radujkovic B, Marques A, Bouix G (1989) Parasites des poissons marins du Montenegro: Myxosporidies. Acta Adriat 30:31–50Google Scholar
- Mansour L, Al-Qahtani HA, Al-Quraishy S, Abdel-Baki AS (2014) Molecular and morphometric characteristics of Ceratomyxa hamour n. sp. (Myxosporea: Bivalvulida) infecting the gallbladder of the Orange-spotted Grouper Epinephelus coioides from the Arabian Gulf, Saudi Arabia. J Eukaryot Microbiol 62:95–101CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Oğuz MC, Bray RA (2006) Digenetic trematodes of some teleost fish off the Mudanya Coast (Sea of Marmara, Turkey). Helminthol 43:161–167Google Scholar
- Öktener A, Trilles JP (2004) Report on Cymothoids (Crustacea, Isopoda) collected from marine fishes in Turkey. Acta Adriat 45(2):145–154Google Scholar
- Sitjà-Bobadilla A, Álvarez-Pellitero P (1993) Light and electron microscopical description of Ceratomyxa labracis n. sp. and a redescription of C. diplodae (Myxosporea: Bivalvulida) from wild and cultured Mediterranean sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax (L.) (Teleostei: Serranidae). Syst Parasitol 26:215–223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Sitjà-Bobadilla A, Palenzuela O, Álvarez-Pellitero P (1995) Ceratomyxa sparusaurati n. sp (Myxosporea: Bivalvulida), a new parasite from cultured gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.) (Teleostei: Sparidae): light and electron microscopic description. J Eukaryot Microbiol 42:529–539CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Shulman SS (1966) Miksosporidii Fauny SSSR. Nauka Publishers, Moscow. (English translation 1990)Google Scholar
- Whipps CM, Adlard RD, Bryant MS, Lester RJG, Findlav V, Kent ML (2003) First report of three Kudoa species from Eastern Australia: Kudoa thyrsites from Mahi mahi (Coryphaena hippurus), Kudoa amamiensis and Kudoa minithyrsites n. sp. from sweeper (Pempheris ypsilychnus). J Eukaryotic Microbiol 50:215–219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Yurakhno VM (1997) Influence of environmental factors on myxosporean infestation of Black Sea fish in coastal waters. Oceanol Stud 1:75–85Google Scholar