Parasitology Research

, Volume 115, Issue 11, pp 4307–4316 | Cite as

Sinuolinea niloticus n. sp., a myxozoan parasite that causes disease in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

  • Marianna Vaz RodriguesEmail author
  • Claire Juliana Francisco
  • Germano Francisco Biondi
  • João Pessoa Araújo Júnior
Original Paper


Sinuolinea species are myxozoans of the order Bivalvulida, suborder Variisporina, and family Sinuolineidae, which can be parasites for freshwater and marine fish. The aim of this study was to describe the occurrence of Sinuolinea niloticus n. sp. infecting Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) from aquaculture and from river sources with morphological and molecular analyses. Between March 2010 and November 2012, 116 Nile tilapia were randomly sampled from aquaculture net fishing (n = 56) in Mira Estrela, São Paulo, and from the Capivari River (n = 60) in Botucatu, São Paulo. The fishes that were sampled were examined by necropsy, microscopic observation and molecular techniques for detection and identification of the myxozoan causing disease in tilapia. All of the tissues that were sampled for analysis showed the presence of the parasite. It was observed by microscopy that the myxozoan belongs to the Sinuolinea genus. This identification was performed based on morphological characteristics and histopathology findings, such as structures consistent with myxozoan in the interstices in all analysed tissues, coagulative necrosis, haemorrhage, inflammatory processes, presence of melano-macrophages and eosinophils. The results of the molecular analyses revealed that the myxozoan detected and identified in this study is sister to a group of other Sinuolinea species. Because this is the first report of this parasite in Nile tilapia, the parasite was named S. niloticus n. sp. This is the first report of a Sinuolinea species in Brazil and in tilapia.


Sinuolineidae Sinuolinea niloticus n. sp. Myxozoan Diagnosis Nile tilapia 



The authors would like to thank Prof. Dr. Reinaldo José da Silva from the Department of Parasitology, Biosciences Institute, Univ. Estadual Paulista (UNESP), for allowing the authors to use the Nomarski differential interference contrast (DIC) microscope of the laboratory of parasitology, which was crucial for identification of the myxozoan found in this study.


  1. Barta JR, Martin DS, Liberator PA, Dashkevicz M, Anderson JW, Feighner SD, Elbrecht A, Perkins-Barrow A, Jenkins MC, Danforth D, Ruff MD, Profous-Juchelka H (1997) Phylogenetic relationships among eight Eimeria species infecting domestic fowl inferred using complete small subunit ribosomal DNA sequences. J Parasitol 83:262–271CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Basikalova A (1932) Data on the parasitology on Murmansk fish. Sb. Nauchno-Promysl: Rabot na Murmane, SnabtekhizdatGoogle Scholar
  3. Bucke D (1989) Histology. In: Austin DA, Austin B (eds) Methods for the microbiological examination of fish and shellfish. Ellis Horwood, Chichester, pp 69–97Google Scholar
  4. Corpet F (1988) Multiple sequence alignment with hierarchical clustering. Nucl Acids Res 16(22):10881–10890CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. Davis HS (1917) Myxosporidia of the Beaufort region: a systematic and biological study. Fish Bull 35:201–243Google Scholar
  6. Diamant A, Whipps CM, Kent ML (2004). A new species of Sphaeromyxa (Myxosporea:Sphaeromyxina: Sphaeromyxidae) in devil firefish, Pterois miles (Scorpaenidae), from the northern Red Sea: morphology, ultrastructure, and phylogeny. J Parasitol 90:1434–1442Google Scholar
  7. Dyková I, Kodádková A, de Buron I, Fiala I, Roumillat WA (2013) Sinuolinea infections in the urinary system of Cynoscion species of Sinuolinea Davis, 1917 (Myxozoa: Myxosporea). Int J Parasitol Parasites Wildl 2:10–17CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. El-Matbouli M, Hoffmann RW (1994) Sinuolinea tetraodoni n. sp., a myxozosporean parasite of freshwater pufferfish Tetraodon palembangensis from Southeast Asia—light and electron microscope observations. Dis Aquat Org 19:47–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Fiala I (2006). The phylogeny of Myxosporea (Myxozoa) based on small subunit ribosomal RNA gene analysis. Int J Parasitol 36:1521-1534Google Scholar
  10. Froese R, Pauly D (2015) Fishbase. World wide web electronic publication., Accessed 01 Aug 2015Google Scholar
  11. Garner MM, Atkinson SD, Hallett SL, Bartholomew JL, Nordhausen RW, Reed H, Adams L, Whitaker B (2008) Renal myxozoanosis in weedy sea dragons, Phyllopteryx taeniolatus (Lacepède), caused by Sinuolinea phyllopteryxa n. sp. J Fish Dis 31:27–35CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Grossel GW, Dykova I, Handlinger J, Munday BL (2003) Pentacapsula neurophila n. sp. (Multivalvulida) from the central nervous system of striped trumpeter, Latris lineate (Forster). J Fish Dis 26:315–320CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Hallett SL, Diamant A (2001). Ultrastructure and small-subunit ribosomal DNA sequence of Henneguya lesteri n. sp. (Myxosporea), a parasite of sand whiting Sillago analis (Sillaginidae) from the coast of Queensland, Australia. Dis Aquat Org 46:197–212Google Scholar
  14. Kodádková A, Dyková I, Tyml T, Ditrich O, Fiala I (2014) Myxozoa in high artic: survey on the central part of Svalbard archipelago. Int J Parasitol Parasites Wildl 3:41–56CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. Lom J, Arthur JR (1989) A guideline for the preparation of species descriptions in Myxosporea. J Fish Dis 12:151–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Lom J, Dyková I (2006) Myxozoan genera: definition and notes on taxonomy, life-cycle terminology and pathogenic species. Folia Parasitol 53:1–36CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Moser M, Kent ML, Dennis D (1989) Gall bladder Myxosporea in coral reef fishes Heron Island, Australia. Aust J Zool 37:1–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Noga EJ (2010) Fish disease: diagnosis and treatment. Blackwell Publishing, IowaCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Shulman SS (1953) Parasites of fish from the white sea. Izd Akad Nauk SSSR, Moskva, p 198Google Scholar
  20. Shulman SS (1966) Myxosporidia of the USSR. Nauka Publishers, Moscow–LeningradGoogle Scholar
  21. Tripathi YR (1948) Some new Myxosporidia from Plymouth with a proposed new classification of the order. Parasitol 59:844–850Google Scholar
  22. Ullman LS, Tozato CC, Malossi CD, da Cruz TF, Cavalcante RV, Kurissio JK, Cagnini DQ, Rodrigues MV, Biondo AW, Araújo Júnior JP (2015) Comparative clinical sample preparation of DNA and RNA viral nucleic acids for commercial deep sequencing system (Illumina MiSeq®). J Virol Methods 220:60–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Yoshino TP, Noble RR (1973) Myxosporidia of macrourid fishes from southern California and Mexico. J Parasitol 59:844–850CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Zhao Y, Song W (2001) Myxoproteus cheni sp. n. and Sinuolinea mai sp. n. (Myxosporea: Sinuolineidae) parasitic in the urinary bladder of marine fish (Thamnaconus septentrionalis) from the Yellow Sea, off the Qingdao coast of China. Acta Protozool 40:125–130Google Scholar
  25. Zhao Y, Song W (2003) Studies on the morphology and taxonomy of three new myxosporeans of the genus Sinuolinea Davis, 1917 (Myxosporea: Sinuolineidae) infecting the urinary bladder of some marine fishes from the Shandong coast, China. Syst Parasitol 55(1):53–59CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marianna Vaz Rodrigues
    • 1
    Email author
  • Claire Juliana Francisco
    • 2
  • Germano Francisco Biondi
    • 3
  • João Pessoa Araújo Júnior
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Biosciences InstituteUniversity Estadual Paulista (UNESP)São PauloBrazil
  2. 2.Department of Parasitology, Biosciences InstituteUniversity Estadual Paulista (UNESP)São PauloBrazil
  3. 3.Department of Veterinary Hygiene and Public Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and ZootechnyUniversity Estadual Paulista (UNESP)São PauloBrazil

Personalised recommendations