Oncomelania hupensis snails along the Yangtze River and the low positive rate and infectiosity of human and livestock schistosomiasis still pose a threat to public health in China. Adult blood flukes were recognized as Schistosoma japonicum, which are found in the portal system of the sentinel mice bred in the laboratory for 35 days after contact with the water. However, 35 days was too long from the field test to dissection, and the dissection in the laboratory was also time-consuming and labor-intensive. Serum peptides in mice at different times after infection were measured by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. ClinProTool was used to establish the proteomic detection pattern (PDP), based on the differentially expressed peptide between the infection and healthy control groups. Under experimental conditions, characteristic PDP were detected in 5 % (3/60), 35 % (21/60), 75 % (45/60), 87.93 % (51/58), and 98.15 % (53/54) of infected mice from weeks 1 to 5 post-infection, whereas ELISA and dissection examination for adult blood flukes missed the first 2 weeks. At 35 days post-infection, the infectiosity assay showed 40 % (4/10), 50 % (5/10), and 80 % (8/10) positivity with the PDP test in mice infected with 4, 6, and 10 cercariae, respectively, as well as 100 % (10/10) positivity in mice infected with 14, 18, and 22 cercariae. Five stored sera of positive sentinel mice with parasite detection were verified correctly in the PDP test. The results confirm that PDP can be used as a rapid and early detection method for S. japonicum infection in experimental mice, which are expected to apply in early surveillance for schistosomiasis.
Schistosomiasis ClinProTool MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry Sentinel mice Early surveillance
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We thank Leping Sun, Yunyi Yao, Jianfeng Zhang, Feng Wu, Song Zhao, Yongliang Xu, and Ying Zhang of the Jiangsu Institute of Parasitic Diseases for technical assistance.
YH, WL, KL, PC, and JT conceived and designed the experiments; YH, WL, and CX performed the experiments; YH and WL analyzed the data; YH, WL, KL, PC, and JT contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools; and YH wrote the paper, All the authors read and approved the final manuscript.
Compliance with ethical standards
All the experiments described here fully complied with current national and institutional regulations and the Guidelines for the Care and Animal Procedures approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee of Jiangsu Institute of Parasitic Diseases (JIPD), Jiangsu Province Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicine, and the Ministry of Science and Technology of the People’s Republic of China (Permit No. 398).
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
This study was supported by the Natural Science Foundation of China (grant no. 31201893), the Special Program of Jiangsu Clinical Medicine (grant no. BL2014020), Jiangsu Province’s Key Medical Centre (grant no. 201108), the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province (grant no. BK2011164), the Jiangsu Health Science Project (grant nos. X201416, X201110, and X201505), the Project of Preventive Medicine Association of Jiangsu Province (grant no. Y2015071), the Open Project of Key Laboratory of Jiangsu Preventive Veterinary Medicine (grant no. K13045), the project of Jiangsu branch of CACMS (grant no. H1604), the Jiangsu Health International Exchange Program to Y Huang, and a pilot grant to K Liu from the Johns Hopkins University Malaria Research Institute. The funders had no role in study design, data collection, management, analysis and interpretation, decision to publish, as well as the preparation, review, or approval of this manuscript.
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