Antileishmanial activity of antiretroviral drugs combined with miltefosine
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Co-infection of Leishmaniasis, a neglected tropical disease, with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has hindered treatment efficacy. In this study, we aim to evaluate the antileishmanial activity of two protease inhibitors (darunavir and atazanavir) and four reverse transcriptase inhibitors (tenofovir, efavirenz, neviraprine, and delavirdine mesylate) on Leishmania infantum. The activity of different antiretrovirals combinations and of antiretroviral with miltefosine, a drug used on leishmaniasis treatment, was also evaluated. Only two non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) were active on L. infantum. Efavirenz showed the best antileishmanial activity on promastigotes cells with IC50 value of 26.1 μM followed by delavirdine mesylate with an IC50 value of 136.2 μM. Neviraprine, tenofovir, atazanavir, and darunavir were not active at the concentrations tested (IC50 > 200 μM). The efavirenz also showed high antileishmanial activity on intramacrophage amastigotes with IC50 of 12.59 μM. The interaction of efavirenz with miltefosine improved antileishmanial activity on promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes (IC50 values of 11. 8 μM and 8.89 μM, respectively). These results suggest that combined-therapy including efavirenz and miltefosine could be alternative options for treating Leishmaniasis and Leishmania/HIV co-infections.
KeywordsLeishmania infantum Leishmania/HIV co-infection Efavirenz Delavirdine mesylate Miltefosine
We would like to thank Professor Isabel Vitória Figueiredo, Faculty of Pharmacy of University of Coimbra, Débora Botura Scariot and Hélito Volpato, State University Maringá (UEM)-Brazil, for the technical support on isolation of intraperitoneal macrophages and Leishmania macrophage infection.
Work supported by FCT POCTI (FEDER) and COMPETE (PEst-C/SAU/LA000172013-2014).
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