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Parasitology Research

, Volume 115, Issue 9, pp 3605–3618 | Cite as

Species diversity of ectoparasitic chigger mites (Acari: Prostigmata) on small mammals in Yunnan Province, China

  • Pei-Ying Peng
  • Xian-Guo GuoEmail author
  • Tian-Guang Ren
  • Wen-Yu Song
  • Wen-Ge Dong
  • Rong Fan
Original Paper

Abstract

Chigger mites are a large group of arthropods and the larvae of mites are ectoparasites. Some species of ectoparasitic mites (larvae) can be the transmitting vectors of tsutsugamushi disease (scrub typhus). Yunnan Province is located in the southwest of China with complicated topographic landform and high biodiversity, where there are five zoogeographical subregions. Rodents and some other small mammals were trapped and examined for ectoparasitic chigger mites in 29 investigation sites in Yunnan during 2001–2013. From 13,760 individuals and 76 species of small mammal hosts, we collected 274 species of mites, which were identified as comprising 26 genera in two families. The species diversity of chigger mites (274 species) in the present study were not only much higher than that from other provinces of China but also largely exceeded that recorded from other regions and countries in the world. Of the five zoogeographical subregions, both the species diversity and Shannon-Weiner’s diversity of mites were the highest in subregion II (southern subregion of Hengduan Mountains) with middle altitudes and middle latitude. Both the species diversity of mites and Shannon–Wiener diversity index showed a parabolic tendency from the low altitude (<500 m) to the high altitude (>3500 m) along the vertical gradients with the peak occurring in the middle-altitude regions (2000–2500 m). Of four dominant hosts, the species richness of mites was highest on Eothenomys miletus (S = 165) and Shannon–Wiener diversity index was highest on Rattus norvegicus (H = 3.13). Along latitude gradients, species richness of chigger mites increased first and then decreased, peaking at 25° to 26° N with 193 mite species. The geographical location, complex topography, and landscape with diverse small mammal hosts in Yunnan Province have contributed to the extremely high species diversity of mites in the province. The large sampling size of small mammal hosts in a wide geographical scope within a long time span also made it possible to have collected so many species of chigger mites.

Keywords

Chigger mite Ectoparasite Vector Species diversity Yunnan China 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We would like to express our sincere thanks to following people who have made contributions in the field investigation and laboratory work: De-cai Ouyang, Shuang-lin Wang, Yun-Ji Zou, Xue-Song He, Peng Hou, Peng-biao Yang, Xue-sen Wu, Biao Yang, Nan Zhao, some colleagues, and college students. The project was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China to Xian-Guo Guo (Nos. 81160208 and 81260259).

Compliance with ethical standards

Ethical approval

The sampling of the voles was officially permitted by the local authority of wildlife service in Dali Prefecture, Yunnan Province, China. The use of animals (voles) for study was also officially approved at the Institute of Pathogens and Vectors, Dali University.

Conflict of interest

All the authors have no conflicts of interest.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pei-Ying Peng
    • 1
  • Xian-Guo Guo
    • 1
    Email author
  • Tian-Guang Ren
    • 1
  • Wen-Yu Song
    • 1
  • Wen-Ge Dong
    • 1
  • Rong Fan
    • 1
  1. 1.Vector Laboratory, Institute of Pathogens and VectorsDali University (Branch of Yunnan Provincial Key Laboratory for Zoonosis Control and Prevention)DaliPeople’s Republic of China

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