Advertisement

Parasitology Research

, Volume 115, Issue 4, pp 1501–1508 | Cite as

Gill monogeneans of Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) and Oreochromis leucostictus (Trewavas, 1933) in Lake Naivasha, Kenya

  • Nehemiah Mogoi RindoriaEmail author
  • Lewis Kamau Mungai
  • Andrew Wamalwa Yasindi
  • Elick Onyango Otachi
Original Paper

Abstract

An investigation of gill monogeneans from the Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus and the blue spotted tilapia Oreochromis leucostictus (50 individuals per species) was done between the months of November 2014 to February 2015 in Lake Naivasha, Kenya. Standard parasitological procedures were used to examine fish gills for the presence of monogeneans. The observed monogeneans were collected, preliminarily identified using identification keys, quantified and fixed in 4 % formalin for morphological studies and absolute ethanol for molecular studies. Four parasite species comprising of three species of the genus Cichlidogyrus and one species of the genus Scutogyrus were recovered. Cichlidogyrus sclerosus and Cichlidogyrus tilapiae infested both fish species but the C. sclerosus was most prevalent in O. leucostictus (Prevalence (P) = 100 %, Mean intensity (MI) = 3.4) and C. tilapiae in O. niloticus (P = 8 %, MI = 4). Cichlidogyrus tilapiae had a P = 12 % and MI = 5.0 and a P = 6 % and MI = 3.0 in O. niloticus and O. leucostictus, respectively. Cichlidogyrus halli (P = 4 %, MI = 15.5) and Scutogyrus gravivaginus (P = 2 %, MI = 1.0) were only found in O. leucostictus. This is the first time that these monogeneans have been identified from Lake Naivasha, Kenya, presenting new geographical records. It was concluded that Ancyrocephalids (Cichilidogyrus spp.) dominated the two cichlid fish species in Lake Naivasha, Kenya.

Keywords

Monogenean Cichlidogyrus Scutogyrus Lake Naivasha Tilapia 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We acknowledge the National Commission of Science and Technology (NACOSTI) for funding this research, the Department of Biological Sciences of Egerton University for allowing us use their laboratory plus equipment, and the staff of the Kenya Marine and Fisheries Research Institute (KMFRI) Naivasha station that helped in fishing.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interests

The authors declare that there are no competing interests.

References

  1. Akoll P, Fioravanti ML, Konecny R, Schiemer F (2012) Infection dynamics of Cichlidogyrus tilapiae and C. sclerosus (Monogenea, Ancyrocephalinae) in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L. 1758) from Uganda. J Helminthol 86:302–310CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Aloo PA (1999) Ecological studies of helminth parasites of the Largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides, from Lake Naivasha and the Oloidien Bay, Kenya. Onderstepoort J Vet 66:73–79Google Scholar
  3. Aloo PA (2002) A comparative study of helminth parasites from the fish Tilapia zillii and Oreochromis leucostictus in Lake Naivasha and Oloidien Bay, Kenya. J Helminthol 76:95–102CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Aloo PA, Dezfuli BS (1997) Occurrence of cystacants of Polyacanthorhynchus kenyensis larvae (Acanthocephala) in four teleostean fishes from a tropical lake, Lake Naivasha, Kenya. Folia Parasitol 44:233–238PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Amin OM, Dezfuli BS (1995) Taxonomic notes on Polyacanthorhychus kenyensis (Acanthocephala: Polyacanthorhynchidae) from Lake Naivasha, Kenya. J Parasitol 81:76–79CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Boungou M, Kable GB, Marques A, Sawadogo L (2008) Dynamics of population of five parasitic monogeneans of Oreochromis niloticus Linne, 1757 in the Dam of Loumbila and possible interest in intensive pisiculture. Pak J Biol Sci 11(10):1317–1323CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Bush AO, Lafferty KD, Lotz JM, Shostak AW (1997) Parasitology meets ecology on its own terms: Margolis et al., Revisited. J Parasitol 83:575–583Google Scholar
  8. Campbell LM, Osano O, Hecky RE, Dixon DG (2003) Mercury in fish from three Rift Valley Lakes (Turkana, Naivasha and Baringo), Kenya, East Africa. Environ Pollut 125:281–286CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Danoff-Burg JA, Xu C (2005) Biodiversity calculator. http://www.columbia.edu/itc/cerc/danoff-burg/MBD_Links.html. Accessed 23 September 2015 at 17.23hrs
  10. Douëllou L (1993) Monogeneans of the genus Cichlidogyrus Paperna, I960 (Dactylogyridae: Ancyrocephalinae) from cichlid fishes of Lake Kariba (Zimbabwe) with descriptions of five new species. Syst Parasitol 25:159–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Dubinin VB (1958) The influence of increased salinity of River Malyi Uzen on the parasite fauna of its fishes. In: Dogiel VA, Petruchevski GK, Polyanski YI (eds) Parasitology of fishes. Oliver and Boyd, Edinburgh, pp 49–83Google Scholar
  12. Ergens R (1969) The suitability of ammonium picrate-glycerin in preparing slides of lower monogenoidea. Folia Parasitol 16:320Google Scholar
  13. Euzet L, Prost M (1981) Report of the meeting on Monogenea: problems of systematics, biology and ecology. In: Slusarski, W. (Eds) Rev adv parasit Warsaw: P. W. N. Polish Scientific Publishers. pp 1003–1004Google Scholar
  14. Galli P, Crosa G, Mariniello L, Ortis M, D’Amelio S (2001) Water quality as a determinant of the composition of fish parasite communities. Hydrobiologia 452:173–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Gaudet JJ, Melack JM (1981) Major ion chemistry in a tropical African lake basin. J Freshw Biol 11:309–333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Gherardi F, Britton JR, Mavuti KM, Pacini N, Grey J, Tricarico E, Harper DM (2011) A review of allodiversity in Lake Naivasha, Kenya: developing conservation actions to protect east African lakes from negative impacts of alien species. Biol Conserv 144:2585–2596CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Gussev AV (1962) Class Monogenoidea. In: Bykhovskaya-Pavlovskaya, I. E. et al. (Eds) [Key to parasites of freshwater fish of the USSR.] Moscow-Leningrad: Akademiya Nauk SSSR, 919 pp. (In Russian: English translation IPST, Series 1136, Jerusalem, 1964)Google Scholar
  18. Hickley P, Muchiri M, Britton R, Boar R (2008) Economic gain versus ecological damage from the introduction of non-native freshwater fish: case studies from Kenya. Open Fish Sci J 1:36–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Jimẻnez-García MI, Vidal-Martínez VM, Lòpez-Jimẻnez S (2001) Monogeneans in introduced and native cichlids in Mexico: evidence for transfer. J Parasitol 84:907–909Google Scholar
  20. Keane RM, Crawley MJ (2002) Exotic plant invasions and the enemy release hypothesis. Trends Ecol Evol 17:164–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. KNBS (2012) Kenya National Bureau of Statistics. Kenya facts and figures. Nairobi Kenya. www.mfa.go.ke/downloads/9-Kenya-facts-and-figures 2012.pdf asssesed 12 October 2015 11.25hrs
  22. Kohn A, Cohen SC, Salgado-Maldonado G (2006) Checklist of monogenean parasites of freshwater and marine fishes, amphibians and reptiles from Mexico, Central America and Caribbean. Zootaxa 1289:1–114Google Scholar
  23. Lambert A (1997) Introduction de poissons dans les milieux aquatiques continentaux : Quid de leurs parasites? Bull Fr Peche Piscic 344(345):323–333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Le Roux LE, Avenant-Oldewage A (2010) Checklist of the fish parasitic genus Cichlidogyrus (Monogenea), including its cosmopolitan distribution and host species. Afr J Aquat Sci 35(1):21–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Lerssutthichawal T (2008) Diversity and distribution of external parasites from potentially cultured freshwater fishes in Nakhonsithammarat, southern Thailand. In Bondad-Reantaso, M. G., Mohan, C.V., Crumlish, M and Subasinghe, R. P. (Eds), Diseases in Asian aquaculture VI: 235–244. Fish health section, Asian Fisheries Society, Manila PhilippinesGoogle Scholar
  26. Madanire-Moyo GN, Matla MM, Olivier PAS, Luus-Powell WJ (2011) Population dynamics and spatial distribution of monogeneans on the gills of Oreochromis mossambicus (Peters, 1852) from two lakes of the Limpopo River System. South Africa. J Helminthol 85:146–152CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Magurran AE (1988) Ecological Diversity and its measurement. Chapman and Hall, London, 192 ppCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Malmberg G (1957) On a new species of viviparous monogenetic trematodes. Ark zool 10(3):317–330Google Scholar
  29. Malvestuto SP, Ogambo-Ongoma A (1978) Observation on the infection of Tilapia leucosticte (Pisces: Cichlidae) with Contracaecum (Nematoda: Heterocheilidae) in Lake Naivasha, Kenya. J Parasitol 64:383–384CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Maneepitaksanti W, Nagasawa K (2012) Monogeneans of Cichlidogyrus paperna, 1960 (Dactylogyridae), gill parasites of tilapias, from Okinawa Prefecture, Japan. Biogeogr 14:111–119Google Scholar
  31. Maneepitaksanti W, Worananthakij W, Sriwilai P Laoprasert T (2014) Identification and distribution of gill monogeneans from Nile Tilapia and red tilapia in Thailand. Chiangmai Vet J 12:57–68Google Scholar
  32. Matla MM (2012) Helminth ichthyo-parasitic fauna of a South african sub-tropical lake. PhD thesis, University of Limpopo, South AfricaGoogle Scholar
  33. Mavuti KM, Harper DM (2005) The ecological state of Lake Naivasha, Kenya: Turning 25 years research into an effective Ramsar monitoring programme. In 11th World lakes conference KICC Nairobi Kenya: 30–34Google Scholar
  34. Mendora-Franco EF, Vidal-Martínez VM, Cruz-Quintana Y, Prats Leon FL (2006) Monogeneans on native and introduced freshwater fishes from Cuba with the description of a new species of Salsuginus Beverley-Burton, 1984 from Limia vittata (Poeciliidae). Syst Parasitol 64(3):181–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Morand S, Poulin R, Hayward C (1999) Aggregative and species co-existence of ectoparasites of marine fishes. Int J Parasitol 29:663–672CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Otachi EO, Magana AM, Jirsa F, Frank-Fellner C (2014) Parasites of commercially important fish from Lake Naivasha, Rift Valley, Kenya. Parasitol Res 113:1057–1067CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Paperna I (1960) Studies on monogenetic trematodes in Israel. 2 monogenetic trematodes of cichlids. Bamidgeh Bull Fish Cult Isr 12:20–33Google Scholar
  38. Paperna I, Thurston JP (1969) Monogenetic trematodes from cichlid fish in Uganda, including the description of five new species of Cichlidogyrus. Rev Zool Bot afr 74:15–23Google Scholar
  39. Pariselle A, Euzet L (1995) Gill parasites of the genus Cichlidogyrus Paperna, 1960 (Monogenea, Ancyrocephalidae) from Tilapia guineensis (Bleeker, 1862), with descriptions of six new species. Syst Parasitol 30:187–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Pariselle A, Euzet L (1997) New species of Cichlidogyrus Paperna, 1960 (Monogenea, Ancyrocephalidae) from the gills of Sarotherodon occidentalis (Daget) (Osteichthyes, Cichlidae) in Guinea and Sierra Leone (West Africa). Syst Parasitol 38:221–230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Pariselle A, Euzet L (2009) Systematic revision of dactylogyridean parasites (Monogenea) from cichlid fishes in Africa, the Levant and Madagascar. Zool syst 31:849–898Google Scholar
  42. Pouyaud L, Desmarais E, Deveney M, Pariselle A (2006) Phylogenetic relationships among monogenean gill parasites (Dactylogyridea, Ancyrocephalidae) infesting tilapiine hosts (Cichlidae): systematic and evolutionary implications. Mol Phylogenet Evol 38:241–249CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Price CE, Kirk R (1967) First description of a monogenetic trematode from Malawi. Rev Zool Bot Afr 76(1/2):137–143Google Scholar
  44. Sandoval-Gio JJ, Rodriguez-Canul R, Vidal-Martinez VM (2008) Humoral antibody response of the tilapia Oreochromis niloticus against Cichlidogyrus spp. (Monogenea). J Parasitol 94:404–409CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Sasal P, Morand S, Guegan JF (1997) Parasite species richness for fish of Mediterranean Sea. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 149:61–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Schäperclaus W (1990) Fischkrankheiten. Akademie Verlag, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  47. Tombi J, Akoumba JF, Bilong Bilong CF (2014) The monogenean community on the gills of Oreochromis niloticus from Melen fish station in Yaounde. Cameroon Int J Mod Biol Res 2:16–23Google Scholar
  48. Torchin ME, Lafferty KD, Dobson AP, McKenzie VJ, Kuris AM (2003) Introduced species and their missing parasites. Nature 421:628–629CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Woo PTK (1995) Fish diseases and disorders vol 1. Protozoan and metazoan infections. CAB international, Canada, 808 ppGoogle Scholar
  50. Zharikova TI (2000) The adaptative reactions of the gill ectoparasites of the bream (Abramis brama) and the white bream (Blicca bjoerkna) onto the anthropologenic factor influence in the Ivan’kovo reservoir. Parasitol 34(1):50–55Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nehemiah Mogoi Rindoria
    • 1
    Email author
  • Lewis Kamau Mungai
    • 1
  • Andrew Wamalwa Yasindi
    • 1
  • Elick Onyango Otachi
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Biological SciencesEgerton UniversityEgertonKenya

Personalised recommendations