Parasitology Research

, Volume 115, Issue 2, pp 723–733 | Cite as

Novel synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Bauhinia variegata: a recent eco-friendly approach for mosquito control

  • Marimuthu GovindarajanEmail author
  • Mohan Rajeswary
  • Kaliyan Veerakumar
  • Udaiyan Muthukumaran
  • S. L. Hoti
  • Heinz Mehlhorn
  • Donald R. Barnard
  • Giovanni BenelliEmail author
Original Paper


Mosquito vectors are responsible for transmitting diseases such as malaria, dengue, chikungunya, Japanese encephalitis, dengue, and lymphatic filariasis. The use of synthetic insecticides to control mosquito vectors has caused physiological resistance and adverse environmental effects, in addition to high operational cost. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles has been proposed as an alternative to traditional control tools. In the present study, green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using aqueous leaf extract of Bauhinia variegata by reduction of Ag+ ions from silver nitrate solution has been investigated. The bioreduced silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV–visible spectrophotometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). Leaf extract and synthesized AgNPs were evaluated against the larvae of Anopheles subpictus, Aedes albopictus, and Culex tritaeniorhynchus. Compared to aqueous extract, synthesized AgNPs showed higher toxicity against An. subpictus, Ae. albopictus, and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus with LC50 and LC90 values of 41.96, 46.16, and 51.92 μg/mL and 82.93, 89.42, and 97.12 μg/mL, respectively. Overall, this study proves that B. variegata is a potential bioresource for stable, reproducible nanoparticle synthesis and may be proposed as an efficient mosquito control agent.


Arbovirus Eco-friendly larvicide Japanese encephalitis Malaria Mosquito-borne diseases Nanotechnology 



The authors would like to thank Professor and the Head of the Department of Zoology, Annamalai University, for the laboratory facilities provided. The authors would also like to acknowledge the cooperation of staff members of the VCRC (ICMR), Pondicherry.

Compliance with ethical standards

Ethical Approval

All applicable international and national guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed. All procedures performed in studies involving animals were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institution or practice at which the studies were conducted.

Conflicts of interest

The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Heinz Mehlhorn and Giovanni Benelli are Editor in Chief and Editorial Board Member of Parasitology Research, respectively. This does not alter the authors’ adherence to all the Parasitology Research policies on sharing data and materials.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marimuthu Govindarajan
    • 1
    Email author
  • Mohan Rajeswary
    • 1
  • Kaliyan Veerakumar
    • 1
  • Udaiyan Muthukumaran
    • 1
  • S. L. Hoti
    • 2
  • Heinz Mehlhorn
    • 3
  • Donald R. Barnard
    • 4
  • Giovanni Benelli
    • 5
    Email author
  1. 1.Unit of Vector Control, Phytochemistry and Nanotechnology, Department of ZoologyAnnamalai UniversityAnnamalai NagarIndia
  2. 2.Regional Medical Research CentreBelgaumIndia
  3. 3.Department of ParasitologyHeinrich Heine UniversityDüsseldorfGermany
  4. 4.Center for Medical, Agricultural, and Veterinary EntomologyUSDA-ARSGainesvilleUSA
  5. 5.Department of Agriculture, Food and EnvironmentUniversity of PisaPisaItaly

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