Advertisement

Parasitology Research

, Volume 114, Issue 10, pp 3835–3853 | Cite as

Acute toxicity and synergistic and antagonistic effects of the aromatic compounds of some essential oils against Culex quinquefasciatus Say larvae

  • Roman Pavela
Original Paper

Abstract

The efficacy of 30 aromatic compounds and their mutual binary combinations was assessed for acute toxicity against the larvae Culex quinquefasciatus. Based on comparison of the lethal doses, thymol and p-cymene were selected as the most effective (LD50 = 18 and 21 mg L−1, respectively, and LD90 = 25 and 30 mg L−1, respectively). Although the LD50 for terpinolene and trans-anethole was also estimated at 21 mg L−1, their LD90 was significantly higher compared to the substances above (245 and 34 mg L−1, respectively). In total, 435 binary combinations were tested, of which 249 combinations showed a significant synergistic effect, while 74 combinations showed a significant antagonistic effect on mortality. Only nine substances were identified as being able to create a synergistic effect with more than 20 substances: limonene, trans-anethole, 4-allylanisole, carvacrol, isoeugenol, menthone, carvone, borneol, and camphor. The highest synergistic effect on larval mortality was achieved for the combinations: eugenol and isoeugenol, carvone and carvacrol, carvone and 4-allylanisole, carvone and α-terpineol, carvone and menthone, limonene and trans-anethole, limonene and menthone, α-pinene and menthone, β-citronellol and menthone, carvacrol and 4-allylanisole, carvacrol and terpineol, α-terpinene and trans-anethole, camphor and menthone, camphene and menthone, and 4-allylanisole and menthone. Significant differences between achieved mortality and the mutual mixing ratio were found for the five selected binary mixtures that had shown the most significant synergistic effect in the previous tests. The mixture of limonene and trans-anethole showed the highest mortality, with the mixing ratio 1:1; the mixture of eugenol and isoeugenol caused 90.2 % mortality, with the mixing ratio 1:3. One hundred percent mortality was achieved if carvacrol was contained in a mixture with carvone in a ratio >2. After a comparison of all our results, based on our experiments, we can choose two pairs that caused mortality higher than 90 % in concentrations lower than 20 mg L−1: limonene and trans-anethole (with the mixing ratio 1:1), and carvone and carvacrol (with the mixing ratio 1:2–3). The information gained can thus be used in the development of new botanical insecticides based on essential oils (EOs) and particularly in the creation of formulations.

Keywords

Synergisms Antagonisms Botanical insecticides Monoterpenes Larvicides Essential oils 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by the Ministry of Agriculture of the Czech Republic Project No. RO0415.

References

  1. Abbott WS (1925) A method of computing the effectiveness of an insecticide. J Econ Entomol 18:265–267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bakkali F, Averbeck S, Averbeck D, Idaomar M (2008) Biological effects of essential oils—a review. Food Chem Toxicol 46:446–475CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Banthorpe DV (1991) Classification of terpenoids and general procedures for their characterization. In: Charlwood BV, Banthorpe DV (eds) Methods in plant biochemistry, vol. 7, terpenoids. Academic, London, pp 1–41Google Scholar
  4. Barbosa PCS, Medeiros RS, Sampaio PTB, Vieira G, Wiedemann LSM, Veiga-Junior VF (2012) Influence of abiotic factors on the chemical composition of Copaiba oil (Copaifera multijuga Hayne): soil composition, seasonality and diameter at breast height. J Braz Chem Soc 23:1823–1833CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bejon P, Williams TN, Liljander A, Noor AM, Wambua J, Ogada E, Olotu A, Osier FHA, Hay SI, Farnert A, Marsh K (2010) Stable and unstable malaria hotspots in longitudinal cohort studies in Kenya. PLoS Med 7Google Scholar
  6. Benelli G, Flamini G, Canale A, Molfetta I, Cioni PL, Conti B (2012) Repellence of Hyptis suaveolens L. (Lamiaceae) whole essential oil and major constituents against adults of the granary weevil Sitophilus granarius (L.) (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae). Bull Insectol 65:177–183Google Scholar
  7. Benelli G, Flamini G, Fiore G, Cioni PL, Conti B (2013) Larvicidal and repellent activity of the essential oil of Coriandrum sativum L. (Apiaceae) fruits against the filariasis vector Aedes albopictus Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae). Parasitol Res 112:1155–1161CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Burt S (2004) Essential oils: their antibacterial properties and potential applications in foods—a review. Int J Food Microbiol 94:223–253CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Cohen JM, Moonen B, Snow RW, Smith DL (2010) How absolute is zero? An evaluation of historical and current definitions of malaria elimination. Malar J 9:213CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Dias N, Moraes DFC (2014) Essential oils and their compounds as Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) larvicides: review. Parasitol Res 113:565–592CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Dubey NK (2011) Natural products in pest management. CAB International, LondonGoogle Scholar
  12. Fillinger U, Lindsay SW (2011) Larval source management for malaria control in Africa: myths and reality. Filling Lind Malar J 10:353CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Finney DJ (1971) Probit analysis. Cambridge University Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  14. Foster WA, Walker ED (2002) Mosquitoes (Culicidae). In: Mullen G, Durden L (eds) Medical and veterinary entomology. Academic Press, New York, pp 245–249Google Scholar
  15. Hodgson E, Levi PE (1996) Pesticides: an important but underused model for the environmental health sciences. Environ Health Perspect 104:97–106CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Hummelbrunner LA, Isman MB (2001) Acute, sublethal, antifeedant, and synergistic effects of monoterpenoid essential oil compounds on the tobacco cutworm, Spodoptera litura (Lep., Noctuidae). J Agric Food Chem 49:715–720CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Isman MB (2006) Botanical insecticides, deterrents, and repellents in modern agriculture and an increasingly regulated world. Annu Rev Entomol 51:46–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Isman MB, Grieneisen ML (2014) Botanical insecticide research: many publications, limited useful data. Trends Plant Sci 19:140–145CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Koul O, Walia S, Dhaliwal GS (2008) Essential oils as green pesticides: potential and constraints. Biopest Int 4:63–84Google Scholar
  20. Koul O, Singh R, Kaur B, Kanda D (2013) Comparative study on the behavioural response and acute toxicity of some essential oil compounds and their binary mixtures to larvae of Helicoverpa armigera, Spodoptera litura and Chilo partellus. Ind Crops Prod 49:428–436CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Lomonaco D, Santiago GMP, Ferreira YS, Arriaga AMC, Mazzetto SE, Melec G, Vasapollo G (2009) Study of technical CNSL and its main components as new green larvicides. Green Chem 11:31–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Lucia A, Audino PG, Seccacini E, Licastro S, Zerba E, Masuh H (2007) Larvicidal effect of Eucalyptus grandis essential oil and turpentine and their major components on Aedes aegypti larvae. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 23:299–303CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Miresmailli S, Isman MB (2014) Botanical insecticides inspired by plant–herbivore chemical interactions. Trends Plant Sci 19:29–35CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Morais LAS (2009) Influência dos fatores abióticos na composição química dos óleos essenciais. Hortic Bras 27:S4050–S4063Google Scholar
  25. O’Meara W, Mangeni J, Steketee R, Greenwood B (2010) Changes in the burden of malaria in sub-Saharan Africa. Lancet Infect Dis 10:505–576CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Pavela R (2008) Acute and synergistic effects of some monoterpenoid essential oil compounds on the house fly (Musca domestica L.). J Essent Oil Bearing Plants 11:451–459CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Pavela R (2009) Larvicidal property of essential oils against Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae). Ind Crop Prod 30:311–315CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Pavela R, Vrchotova N, Triska J (2009) Mosquitocidal activities of thyme oils (Thymus vulgaris L.) against Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae). Parasitol Res 105:1365–1370CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Pavela R (2011) Insecticidal properties of phenols on Culex quinquefasciatus Say and Musca domestica L. Parasitol Res 190:1547–1553CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Pavela R (2014a) Insecticidal properties of Pimpinella anisum essential oils against the Culex quinquefasciatus and the non-target organism Daphnia magna. J Asia Pac Entomol 17:287–293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Pavela R (2014b) Acute, synergistic and antagonistic effects of some aromatic compounds on the Spodoptera littoralis Boisd. (Lep., Noctuidae) larvae. Ind Crop Prod 60:247–258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Pavela R, Kaffkova K, Kumsta M (2014) Chemical composition and larvicidal activity of essential oils from different Mentha L. and Pulegium species against Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae). Plant Protect Sci 50:36–42Google Scholar
  33. Perumalsamy H, Kim NJ, Ahn AJ (2009) Larvicidal activity of compounds isolated from Asarum heterotropoides against Culex pipiens pallens, Aedes aegypti, and Ochlerotatus togoi (Diptera: Culicidae). J Med Entomol 46:1420–1423CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Philogène BJR, Regnault-Roger C, Vincent C (2002) Produits phytosanitaires insecticides d’origine végétale: Promesses d’hier et d’aujourd’hui. In: Produits insecticides phytosanitaires d’origine végétale, 2‘eme éd. Lavoisier, Paris, pp. 1–17Google Scholar
  35. Ranson H, Abdallah H, Badolo A, Guelbeogo W, Hinzoumbé C, Yangalbé-Kalnoné E, Sagnon N, Simard F, Coetzee M (2009) Insecticide resistance in Anopheles gambiae: data from the first year of a multi-country study highlight the extent of the problem. Malar J 8:299CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Rattan RS (2010) Mechanism of action of insecticidal secondary metabolites of plant origin. Crop Prot 29:913–920CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Regnault-Roger C, Vincent C, Arnason JT (2012) Essential oils in insect control: low-risk products in a high-stakes world. Ann Rev Entomol 57:405–424CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Ryan MF, Byrne O (1988) Plant-insect coevolution and inhibition of acetylcholinesterase. J Chem Ecol 14:965–1975CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Santos SRL, Silva VB, Melo MA, Barbosa JDF, Santos RLC, Sousa DP, Cavalcanti SCH (2010) Toxic effects on and structure-toxicity relationships of phenylpropanoids, terpenes, and related compounds in Aedes aegypti larvae. Vector-Borne Zoonotic Dis 10:1049–1054CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. SAS (2004) Institute Sas/Stat user’s guide.. Sas/Stat user’s guide, version 9.2. SAS Institute, Cary, NCGoogle Scholar
  41. Simas NK, Lima EC, Conceição SR, Kuster RM, Oliveira-Filho AM (2004) Produtos naturais para o controle da transmissão da dengue—atividade larvicida de Myroxylon balsamum (óleo vermelho) e de terpenóides e fenilpropanóides. Quim Nov. 27:46–49Google Scholar
  42. Sutthanont N, Choochote W, Tuetun B, Junkum A, Jitpakdi A, Chaithong U, Riyong D, Pitasawa B (2010) Chemical composition and larvicidal activity of edible plant-derived essential oils against the pyrethroid-susceptible and -resistant strains of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). J Vector Ecol 35:106–115CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Tolle MA (2009) Mosquito-borne diseases. Curr Probl Pediatr Adolesc Health Care 39:97–140CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. WHO (1996) Report of the WHO informal consultation on the evaluation and testing of insecticides. CTD/WHOPES/IC/96.1Google Scholar
  45. WHO (2009a) Management of severe malaria: a practical handbook. 2000. Accessed January 9, 2009 at http://www.rbm.who.int/docs/hbsm.pdf
  46. WHO (2012a) Impact of dengue. Global alert and response (GAR). http://www.who.int/csr/disease/dengue/impact/en/index.html. Accessed 14 Apr 2012
  47. WHO (2012b) Dengue and severe dengue. Factsheet no. 117. http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs117/en/. Accessed 15 Apr 2012
  48. WHO (2012c) Global plan for insecticide resistance management in malaria vectors (GPIRM). http://whqlibdoc.who.int/Publications/2012/9789241564472_eng.pdf Accessed 15 Apr 2012
  49. WHO (2012d) Interim position statement. The role of larviciding for malaria control in sub-Saharan Africa. Global Malaria Program, Geneva, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
  50. Zoubiri S, Baaliouamer A (2011) Potentiality of plants as source of insecticide principles. J Saudi Chem Soc. doi: 10.1016/j.jscs.2011.11.015 Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Crop Research InstituteRuzyněCzech Republic

Personalised recommendations